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    ЦЕНТР РЕЛИГИОВЕДЧЕСКИХ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЙ И МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫХ ДУХОВНЫХ ОТНОШЕНИЙ
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    CENTER OF RELIGIOUS SCIENCE RESEARCH AND INTERNATIONAL SPIRITUAL RELATIONS

Tears of the Holocaust

Ivashchenko A.V., Zaslavskaya L.M.

I24    Tears of the Holocaust. – Donetsk: Published by Zaslavskiy A.Yu., 2012. –72 p.

          ISBN 978-617-632-014-2

 “Tears of the Holocaust” is a book narrating the Holocaust tragedy in Donetsk city. It also illustrates history of Donetsk Jewish Community and represents the Holocaust memorialization process. For the first time ever, this book gives the complete list of surnames and names of people dead in 4/4-bis mine, which actually became Donetsk Babi Yar. Both archive records and eyewitnesses’ stories were used in this book.

 

 

UDK 940.53

BBK 63.3 (0)62

© Ivashchenko A.V., Zaslavskaya L.M., 2012

ISBN 978-617-632-014-2                                             © Published by Zaslavskiy O.Yu., 2012

 

 

Table of Contents

__________________________________

 

Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………4

 History of Donetsk Jewish Community………………………………………………………....6

The Holocaust history in Donetsk city……………………………………………………..…...10

The Holocaust memorialization………………………………………………………………...19

Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………....................24

Considerations…………………………………………………………………………………..26

List of reference……………………………………………………………………....................29

Attachments

            A.D. Polozhentsev’s story…………………………………………..…….......................30

            Witnesses and memories about Jews destruction in Donetsk city during the Holocaust             period…………………………………………………………………………………….33

            Conclusion of Expert Commission regarding to the tragedy in 4/4-bis mine pit...……...40

            Abbreviates of trial against Eichman – Yuzovka burgomaster.…………………………44

            Example of Donbass Nepokoryonnyi (Unconquerable Donbass) Museum victims

            memorial activity…………………………………………………………………..…….48

            Complete list of surnames and names of people dead in 4/4-bis mine………………......52

  

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Introduction

_______________________________

Thank you for opening our book!

In these latter days there is plenty of various information, particularly in the Internet – advertisements, social network, games etc. Therefore, if a person has opened this book, we may express our gratitude to him/her even for that, especially the book with such complicated name.

We named our book as “Tears of the Holocaust”. Why does it have such name?

Very often the human factor is lost in general history and the Holocaust study, in particular by dates and numbers, facts and documents, events and circumstances. Everything assumes some generalized statistical character. Many people probably know well phrase: “The death of one man is a tragedy; the death of millions is a statistic”.

Therefore, it is always important to remember that every number, every event, every story involves human lives, certain fates and someone’s tears…

In our book we are trying to make general review of Donetsk Jews’ Holocaust history and its memorialization in the region.

This book reflects some specific moments in Donetsk history and culture, along with it gives the short excursus to the history of local Jewish Community

Selected topic is clearly designated geographically and chronologically. From geographic standpoint we examine the territory of Donetsk city, sometimes recurring to comparative analysis with other Donbass and Ukrainian cities.  In terms of time this book was written chronologically - from formation of Donetsk Jewish Community and the city foundation in the late 19th century till today.

In this book various materials were used such as archive documents, scientific research, museum materials, eyewitnesses’ stories and statements etc.

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Actually it is small collected book dedicated to the Holocaust history in Donetsk city.

Donetsk archives and museums certainly have many materials on such topic. We are making only small excerpts united by our study in order to create general impression for our reader. 

In the end of collected book there is complete list of identified surnames and names of people dead in 4/4-bis mine, wherein fascists were killing their victims.

We are also trying to finalize and propose ethnic conclusions, although, everyone certainly has right for personal opinion.

We express our gratitude to all those, who made possible writing and publication of this collected book, namely:

- we are grateful foremost to all those, who overcame fascism.

- we are grateful to all those, who could preserve historical heritage and pass it further to those, who brought us up in the spirit of truth and ethics search;

- we are grateful to our nearest and dearest, who support and understand us;

- we are grateful to you, those, who opened this book;

- we are grateful to all those, who wasn’t and isn’t indifferent then as now.

- we thank God that gives strength to continue our way.

Think, look around, and you will find someone, who would be grateful personally to you in your surrounding and your life.

This book is not commercial project and not held for sale. Authors collected materials and wrote the book on a voluntary basis without any financial interest, and Zaslavskiy Publishing House published it at its own cost for charity purposes.

So, let’s start out…

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History of Donetsk Jewish Community

To start with, let’s make short excursus to the history of Donetsk Jewish Community before the war. Together with prehistory of Donetsk Jewish Community we will see the history of city origination and this region specifics formation. All that had further influence on events connected with the Holocaust.

1869 is considered to be the year of Donetsk foundation, when John Hughes, English entrepreneur, established metallurgical and coal production on the territory of future Donetsk city, and Yuzovka worker’s settlement, named after him, sprang up near the factory. At the moment of foundation the population of Yuzovka amounted to 164 residents. Iron Works was an enterprise, around which the settlement grew up.

Rapid output growth, creation of new directions, factory expansion and establishment of mines led to explosive development of the region. Thousands of people regularly arrived to Yuzovka, which all the time had shortness of hands. Work was very hard, often very dangerous; therefore, there wasn’t serious managerial control of employment.

People gathered from the whole empire, many of them had a shady past, there were fugitive criminals, ex-prisoners etc. From the very beginning its population was various, multiethnic. Multiethnic feature was associated with social pattern. Approximate scheme was the following:

- the Englishmen managed the production;

- the Russians were workers and miners;

- the Ukrainians were farmworkers;

- the Jews were craftsmen and tradesmen.

Multinationality became one of the basic local features.

In 1882, after tsar’s murder and in the light of anti-Jews decrees, the Order was issued regarding to the Jews resettlement in the boundaries of local residence.

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This Order concerned the Jews residing illegally in Central Russia, as well as some categories of legal residents, for instance: merchants, retired enlisted men, discharged soldiers etc. A lot of them moved to Yuzovka. It is important to note unique fact that the pale of settlement and administrative border between Ukraine and Don Army region were passing across Yuzovka. The border was passing along the Kalmius river. The territory of Ukraine, pale of settlement and Yuzovka were on the one side, and the Jews were living there respectively.  On the other side there was the beginning of the Cossack territory, wherein the Jews were not allowed to settle, lease land, have own business etc.

In 1903 the legislation made small positive shift concerning the Jews, conditions of economic activity were simplified for residents of some settlements.  These settlements included Yuzovka. As a result, large percent of shopkeepers, craftsmen, wage workers arrived to Yuzovka from other governorates.

The border with Russia, a large number of migrants from Russian regions, Russian language as common for multiethnic residents-all that determined one more important feature of local mentality – Russian language in everyday speech and mental affinity with Russia. It is more or less typical for the whole Eastern Ukraine.

Thus, for instance, 70% of the Jews of Yekaterinoslav Governorate knew Russian, comparing with 40% of the Jews on the Western Ukraine.

Let’s see Yuzovka census records of the year 1917: the Russians – 31 952, the Jews-9934, the Ukrainians – 7086, the Poles – 2120, the Belorussians – 1465, the Armenians –421, the Tatars – 334, the Kazakhs – 130, the Englishmen – 101, the Gipsies – 96, and the Germans – 70 etc. Total: 54718 people (Styopkin V.P., Gergel V. I. Complete history of Donetsk. 2008, p.121).

By the way, in 1917 Yuzovka became incorporated.

It is easy to see that the Jews by their number were the second nation after the Russians and constituted 18% of the local population. Actually, Jewish population always varied within range 15–25% of habitants, thus, it constituted serious percent. Yuzovka had several synagogues, Jewish educational institutions, mikvah, Jewish cemetery etc.

A lot of Jews were managers. As a rule, the Jews knew several languages and local mentality. On the one hand, they were good managers at the local level, on the other hand, they remained aliens for workers, and due to that they couldn’t collude with them against superiors. All that often motivated the Englishmen to recommend the Jews as managers. It should be noted that this factor affected disorders in 1892.

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However, the Jews couldn’t lease land or mine on their own; they could do that only with non-Jewish partner.

In 1892 “cholera riot” burst out in Yuzovka, when workmen blamed the Englishmen and the Jews that they were not sick, and only workmen were sick.

It escalated into Jewish disorders and robberies of not only Jewish property, but also the factory property. Interesting fact is that factory workers protected the factory cash desk from workers-looters. Finally, disorders were stopped by an army.

The response to anti-Jews decrees and disorders was an expansion of socialism and Zionism ideas diffusion among Yuzovka Jews.

In 1887 Yuzovka Zionist Organization was established. In 1905 it consisted of 400 people. It is worth to mention Aran Zalman, born in Yuzovka, who was an active member of Zionist movement, and later he became a member of the Knesset and minister of education of Israel.

Since the beginning of revolutionary activities a lot of Jews, especially youth, participated there. Records of Yuzovka police were riddled with Jewish surnames. In this respect the situation was equivalent with state of affairs in other regions.

Yuzovka Jews participated in revolution and Civil War. Most of them were in the Red Army and Makhno army. Thus, for instance, famous Lev Zadov, born in Yuzovka, was a chief of Makhno counterintelligence.

In 1924 the town was renamed into Stalino town, and in 1932 it became a regional center.

In twenties-thirties years the city continued to develop.

Soviet system had double effect on the Jews. On the one hand, denationalization removed restrictions and a lot of Jews began moving up the social line. High percentage of employees in government authorities, People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD), production administration were the Jews.

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Many Jews were engaged in Donbass traditional mining industry, among which a lot of leading mining experts can be named.

The history of Donetsk science, medicine, education of that period is full of names of famous Donetsk Jewish scientists and specialists.

On the other hand, the Soviet government declared war against religion, incl. Judaism. Jewish religious life was ceased in Stalino. In 1937 the synagogue was closed, and in 1938 David Kodkin , the rabbi was arrested and shot.

According to All-Union census of population for the year 1939 the population of Stalino numbered 466 300 people. As of the summer of the year 1941, there are not exact numbers, however, the population undoubtedly grew by natural increase and internal migration as Donbass remained attractive region. At that time about 20% of Stalino residents were the Jews.

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The Holocaust history in Donetsk city

 It is common knowledge that on the 22nd of June the Great Patriotic War was launched.

The Germans rapidly occupied the European part of the USSR. Stalino was located in the eastern part of Ukraine. Thus, the geographic aspect had positive influence on fate of Donbass Jews. The Germans entered Donbass only in October, and the Jews had 3–4 months for evacuation. Also   the advantage factor was an integration of the Jews into social and industrial structures.

Among the Jews there were a lot of public employees, factory workers, other categories referred to production, who had to be evacuated.

It should be noted that a lot of the Jews were mobilized to army.

Thus, Donbass Jews had time reserve to escape unlike the Jews of Baltics, Western Ukraine and Belarus, who fell into hands of Nazi in the very beginning of war. It causes difficulties in calculation of number of the Jews, who stayed in the city at the moment of its occupation by the Germans.

On the one hand, many were evacuated or called up for the front. On the other hand, there were a lot of the Jews, who ran away from the Western Ukraine to Stalino, but didn’t have time for evacuation and stayed in the city and region at the moment of the Germans’ attack.

It is certainly known that there was Odessa – Mariupol sea bridge, with a help of which the Jews of the western regions were escaping to Donbass.

Thus, it is impossible to calculate how many Jews stayed in Stalino at the moment of city occupation by fascists. Some researchers say numbers within 20–25% of  prewar Jewish population, but they are quite rough, of course.

The Germans entered the region from the south. Mariupol was the first city occupied on the 10th of October.

Shootings began immediately in Mariupol. Stalino was occupied on the 20th of October. Within this interval some Jews from Mariupol succeeded to run away and got to Stalino.

10

 They told that the Jews were killed, but hardly anybody believed them. O.I. Tsyganskaya shows it in her interview (documentary film “Judenfrei”. Donetsk, 2007. D. Senatorov).

Reaction of the Jews stayed in Stalino was typical: some remembered German army of the year 1918 and didn’t believe that this army could do that, others considered that the Germans were cultured nation and, in principle, were not able to do something like that. Also there were such people, who thought that German regime would return the property expropriated by the Soviet government.

The history of the city of that period mentions Kaufman, famous doctor. He was studying in Germany as far back as before the Revolution and persuaded everyone that he had been living in Germany, knew German mentality and culture, and everything was rumors, the Germans were cultured nation and were not able to do that. It’s easy to guess the following: he stayed in Stalino and was killed with those, who shared this illusion.

So, as previously mentioned, on the 20th of October the Germans entered Stalino, and the whole region was being occupied during   October. And administratively the region was annexed to the Left-bank Ukraine. The power was consolidated by the military command, which reported to logistical command of corresponding army. The city got back the old name Yuzovka.

Special teams 4b, 10a and operations group 6 were running Anti-Jews campaign. Ukrainian police was an active participant of it. Like in other regions among local population there were certain people injured by the Soviet system. They welcomed new authorities, hoping that it would bring them liberation.

Historically in Donbass (as we mentioned above) heavy industry, on mines there was weaker ideological control during employment. It made possible to hide away for people that had problems with authorities. Thus, for instance, within abovementioned period there were a lot of people hidden away from dekulakization.  Some of them started working in local police. Military command intruded into actions of special teams in order to put off the Holocaust. It was caused by two factors:

- necessity to preserve stability in region until the front is distanced;

- necessity to exploit the Jews as hard labor force.

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At first, new authorities’ policy conducted towards the Jews had legislative and economic character. The first step was registration of the Jews. It should be noted that the Jews were the only separated group. Hence, we may conclude that from the very beginning there was individual plan for this population group. When the registration was completed, the following step was an imposition of fine on the Jews.

On the 11th of December, 1941 Donetskiy Vestnik newspaper published commandant’s decree, which said that Jewish population participated in mass sabotage and robberies. The following was ordered as punishment:

- impose common fine on the whole Jewish population of the city amounting to 800 thousand Deutsche marks or 8 million rubles;

- the fine should be collected by the Jewish community under control of municipal administration.

-  the fine had to be paid in 3 stages till the 01st of January, 1942.

-  in the event of untimely and short payment of fine, punishments were provided, incl. fine increase.

Besides economic orders, there were also propagandistic orders. Thus, for instance, decrees were published regarding to wearing of the Star of David, separate seats in trams etc. Informative propaganda was started in created local newspapers.

The biggest newspaper in Donetsk was   Donetskiy Vestnik newspaper. It was issued once a week in edition of 50–65 thousand copies, in Russian. It was being issued during the whole period of occupation – since 15.11.1941 till 01.09.1943. The most part of this issue was Nazi anti-Semitic propaganda. Such theme was not changed even after Yuzovka Jewry destruction, when no more Jews stayed in the city.

Thus, all these economic, administrative, propagandistic measures were aimed at distancing of population from the Jews.

The following step was physical confinement of the Jews. It was carried out in the region by two ways:

-         interment camp confinement (Kramatorsk, Starobeshevo);

-         creation of Jewry (Yuzovka).

In February, 1942 Galderberg and Graf, representatives of SD (Security Department), arrived to Yuzovka, who brought instructions from Berlin on creation of Jewry in Yuzovka.

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The territory was allotted in outskirts, away from the population, in so-called White Open Pit. Today in Donetsk it is a district of Cosmos circus. Before revolution porcelain clay was mined, therefore it was nicknamed as White. Historically, there were living the poorest workers in dugouts. In 1920–1930 there was the whole district of similar dugouts, they were called “nakhalovka” or “sobachevka”. Workers built it by themselves. At that time the city was much smaller, and this district was outskirts.

The population was moved from dugouts within three days, the territory was fenced by barbed wire, wherein guards were planted.

There were certain difficulties with information about Yuzovka Jewry: due to the fact that it wasn’t included into officially recognized places of Jews confinement and destruction, there were not almost documents concerning that. Basic source were records of trial on fascist criminals in Yuzovka, their testimonies, witnesses and stories of eyewitnesses and residents of the city.

Discussion concerning Jewry existence lasted a good while. Today the vast majority of researchers consider that Jewry was in the mentioned district. There are still controversies regarding to the date of its foundation.

According to testimonies of Yuzovka burgomaster, there was the following order: to gather the Jews into Jewry in March, 1942. Each family had to take food for several days, valuables, and pass keys from their apartments to police. Thus, Yuzovka Jewry was created. It was forbidden to exit it; Jewry had famine and terrible living conditions. Every day the police took the Jews from Jewry for hard physical work. Not all of them came back.

However, there are witnesses of residents of the city concerning that Jewry had been created earlier, already in winter, 1941–1942. Historians do not have serious controversies about the final date of Jewry destruction. Jewry existed till the 01st of May, 1942. For this period of time, according to different sources, from 3 up to 8 thousand of the Jews passed Jewry. On the 30th of April the Jews of Jewry received the order to take bread for three days, gold, valuables. They had been told that they would go to the place, where they would get a job and new accommodation. Such methodology was effective in all major actions on the territory of region. The Jews were told that they would be moved to new, better place. Thus, for instance, Mariupol Jews were told that they would be carried to Jerusalem.

Jewry was demolished after the Jews liquidation.

The final step of authorities’ policy towards the Jews was their extermination. Right away it should be noted that the Jews were being killed gradually. It was due to that, firstly, the Jews some time were used for their purposes: for money collection, physical labor etc., secondly, even after big action carrying they gradually revealed the Jews remained or hidden, they brought Jewish prisoners of war etc.

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Actually, the Jews were killed on the territory of region in different ways. Different methods were used in three cities with the biggest Jewish population:

- Yuzovka – they were thrown into the pit;

- Mariupol – they were shot;

- Artyomovsk – they were mured in adit.

As you may know, the Germans killed the Jews depending on local conditions. Yuzovka was mining industrial center. Therefore, that method was used for Yuzovka Jews extermination, the Jews were thrown into the pit. Natural specific of the region was unfavorable geographic point for the Jews. Donbass is mostly represented by industrial cities and steppes. There are few forests, therefore, it was impossible to run away to the forest, as it often happened in the Western and Central Ukraine. There were not natural hiding places.

Also unfavorable moment was front closeness, it motivated the Germans for quick liquidation of Jewish population.

Therefore, Jewry in Yuzovka was destructed in spring, 1942, while in the western USSR regions it was much later.

Local population was contrasting as anywhere.

On the one hand, as eyewitnesses tell, in many cases the Germans found the Jews only through the help of local policemen or simply assistants, which knew well who and where was hidden.

On the other hand, there were many cases, when neighbors, friends and acquaintances helped the Jews. They were hiding, giving overnight accommodation, food, cloth, helping to obtain documents.

Donbass multinationality, a great number of mixed marriages, friendship and neighbourhood between people of different nationalities, national tolerance had general positive effect here.

The Germans began killing the Jews from the very beginning of their stay in Yuzovka.

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At first, it had random nature. They killed one after one or in small groups on the spot or next to the pit. Eventually, it became centralized next to the pit of 4/4-bis mine. This mine was known in the 19th century as Rykovskaya, but, after several big accidents, which caused great loss of life, it was mothballed. Since that time it had been ill famed. It is commonly known that Nazism is full of mysticism. For “serious activities” Nazi were trying to select special dates and special places. Thus, for instance, well-known Babi Yar was non-random choice. That place was considered to be negative (one of the old names was Chortova Baba). The date was not selected coincidentally, Yom Kippur is the holiest Jewish day.  According to one’s belief the same was also in Yuzovka.

They chose special place considered to be negative and special date for Jewry destruction – night of the 01st of May, i.e. mystical Walpurgis Night.

Others consider that there is not any mystic there, German engineers simply came to a conclusion about impossibility of mine recovery, therefore, they used it for those purposes. By the way, after war the mine was not recovered.

It is worth mentioning that after Babi Yar, pit of 4/4-bis mine is the second mass grave of civilian victims during the Great Patriotic War on the territory of Ukraine. At the same time the pit is the deepest burial. German engineers calculated the pit depth. It was 365 m. Cross section was 15 m. Groups of people were brought to the pit, shot and their dead bodies were thrown into the pit. Small children were thrown alive. Afterwards, they poured caustic soda for disinfection, masking and sealing.

They were throwing not only the Jews, but also   crypto, guerillas, prisoners of war, and generally everyone, who maintained active or passive resistance in any form and didn’t obey government.

According to witnesses’ stories captured seamen faced death with singing songs. Such evidences remind stories about Babi Yar, when captured seamen of Dnepr Flotilla walked for shooting trying to fight, yelling and shouting: “For Motherland!”

As is known, later, there were the following decrees from German command in separate front points: “Seamen and miners should not be captured”, since seamen and miners’ units had shown themselves as serious, tough soldiers. It reminds decrees of German command in the First World War, which didn’t recommend Cossacks capturing due to the same reasons.

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It should be noted that there was serious underground resistance in the city. Guerilla and raiding groups were also active in the district. Besides that, there was sabotage of the Germans’ attempts to restore industry. Once, during the ceremony on the pit we happened to meet two eyewitnesses of those events, who prayed for miners dead in the pit. By Russian tradition they put glass with vodka and bread, they were crying, telling that they actually saw how the Germans were throwing miners, because they didn’t want to help fascists.

Two cases were fixed, when people didn’t wait execution and snatched castigators and fell into the pit. One of them was S.G. Matekin, the chief of underground resistance group, another – V.V. Chizhov. It is difficult to ascertain how many such cases were, as the similar stories are repeated without names, and it is not clear whether it concerns the same or different people. It is possible that there were several similar cases. According to one version, exactly after that case gas chambers-closed machines began to be widely used, wherein gas was fed, and already dead people were brought to the pit. However, most probably that it wasn’t interrelated, as the Germans applied similar method in other places.

Actually, fascists applied “combined method” of throwing into the pit, i.e. they were throwing people alive, shooting and throwing their dead bodies, they were throwing dead bodies of people killed in gas chambers.

Over the whole history there is one unique case, when a man succeeded to survive. That man was A.D. Polozhentsev. He was a mine-rescue man and knew mine shaft arrangement, he caught a rope and succeeded to survive and came out later. Afterwards, he joint guerillas and was fighting in ranks of Red Army.

His personal story is given in the Attachment 1.

At night from the 30th of April to the 01st of May big action was held towards destruction of Jewry in Yuzovka, residents of which were brought out to the pit and killed.

Hereupon, Jewish issue in Yuzovka was formally solved. However, during the whole period of occupation the Jews were being killed: Jewish prisoners of war, the Jews from neighborhood towns, stumbled across etc. were brought to the pit. Last murder of the Jews was fixed on the 02nd of September, 1943 several days before the city liberation.

 

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You may refer to memories and stories of eyewitnesses  concerning destruction of the Jews during occupation period in Attachment 2.

The city was liberated on the 07th of September, 1943. Upon the liberation State Extraordinary Commission for Determination of Misdeeds Committed by Nazi Occupants and Their Associates was established. Seeing that local residents, eyewitnesses told about events in the pit, works started immediately at location. While retrograding the Germans demolished pit mouth, which considerably complicated work. Finally, it came out that the shaft with 365 m depth was filled by dead bodies up to 310 meters!

They managed to take out about 150 dead bodies, other remaining bodies were plain biomass.  Time, pressure, caustic soda transformed bodies into indiscreet biomass. Very approximate calculation was made by proportion of biomass and pit depth, tentative number was obtained equaling 75 thousand killed people. Among 150 of identified bodies 52 were buried in common grave in Mushketovsky graveyard, other bodies were passed to relatives.

See the Conclusion of Expert Commission in Attachment 3.

A lot of researches consider that real quantity is bigger, as the upper layers were taken as a basis for calculation, while the lower layers were more compressed under the pressure, and accordingly it is possible that their number is bigger, they tell the number up to 100 thousand. However, there are researchers considering that such numbers are far beyond the real one.

Difficulties with calculations were due to the fact that during retrograding the Germans destroyed archive documents.

On the 04th of March, 1944 an Official record about Nazi atrocities in Stalino city of Stalino region was drawn up, wherein a number of 75 thousand civilians was stated (Excerpt from Donetsk Regional State Archive No. 88).

In 1947 Eichman burgomaster and his assistants were being judged. There is sad coincidence of Yuzovka burgomaster’s surname and surname of Adolf Eichman, chief responsible person for “Final Holocaust Solution”.

Eichman hailed from Zaporozhye region, German, born in German colony, local leader. Interesting fact is that in the Soviet times he was a member of the party. Before May, 1942 he was deputy burgomaster of Yuzovka, and in May he became a burgomaster.

 The question arises as to whether it is somehow connected with Jewry liquidation, which happened right on the 01st of May, 1942? It’s most likely that we will not receive the answer to this question.

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On the 24th of October, 1947 Socialistic Donbass newspaper, No. 213, published abstract of record of trial over occupants, wherein it was said about pit tragedy. On the 26th of October, 1947 Socialistic Donbass newspaper, No. 213, published abstract of the next trial record.

During the trial the newspapers continued to publish testimonies of eyewitnesses, witnesses, convicted offenders, burgomaster etc. A lot of people stayed in the court room or near it, the trial was quite opened, especially for the Soviet system of that period.

People were shocked by the scope of the tragedy, Nazi cruelty and barbarity.

Of course, it was difficult to calculate how many victims were in the pit. It was more difficult to ascertain how many of them were the Jews.

It is not clear how many exactly Jews were in the city at the moment of its acquisition by the Germans, all the time they were bringing groups of the Jews from other places, there was not accurate  recording: how many of them were killed etc. Therefore, numbers are very different, we present the most known of them.

A. Eichman, burgomaster, indicated the number 3 thousand. See testimonies of Yuzovka burgomaster on the trial in Attachment 4. Here, you may find testimonies of two witnesses.

V.P. Styopkin, famous local historian indicates the number 7 thousand, and M. Alter, another Donetsk local historian adheres to the same number. A.I. Kruglov, researcher of the Holocaust in the Left-bank Ukraine tells about 16 thousand killed, while D. Titarenko, researcher of the Holocaust in Donetsk region considers that 15–16 thousand civilian Jews and about 2 thousand Jewish prisoners of war were killed.  

In the “Book of condolence of Ukraine” I. Kulaga, chief of Donetsk Regional Editorial Board indicates the number 20 thousand.

According to data of Donbass Nepokoryonnyi (Unconquerable Donbass) Museum about 25 thousand Jews were killed.

As we see, numbers essentially differ: from 3000 minimum up to 25 000 maximum.

 

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The Holocaust memorialization

 In the Soviet times the Holocaust matter was totally hushed up. Mostly there were used such expressions as “slaughter of Soviet citizens”, “slaughter of civilians” etc.

That’s easy to understand due to interpretation of the Soviet ideology, which didn’t lay emphasis on nationality, as it concerned “new community – Soviet people”.

Besides that, it should be taken into consideration that in several USSR regions there were units of local collaborators, who killed the Jews. Thus, it comes out that one Soviet citizens were killing others, who  went behind official ideology. Certainly there was also impact of political leaders’ attitude to Israel and Zionism in general. As you know, during the most USSR postwar history the country didn’t have any Jewish organizations, which could place this matter on the agenda or deal with it.

After Commonwealth of Independent States formation, in the early ninetieth the society became more liberal with range of   various opinions, ideologies, guidelines etc. Jewish organizations resumed their activities, incl. in Donetsk. Since that time wide work has being carried out on the Holocaust memorialization.

The first investigations of the Holocaust in Donetsk, source books, collections of eye-witnesses’ testimonies etc. came out.  The Holocaust memorials have being opened in the region.

As previously mentioned, the region had 3 major cities with Jewish population, consequently, the biggest disasters happened in these particular cities: Mariupol, Artyomovsk, Donetsk.

In 1992 memorial was opened in Mariupol, and in 1999 – in Artyomovsk.

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Annually Donetsk Jewish Community holds commemorative meeting devoted to Donetsk Holocaust, it is usually conducted at local level with municipal administration representatives. The community was an active participant in money collection for the Holocaust Memorial construction.

A good while there was struggle for admission of fact that Jewry existed on the territory of White Open Pit during the war.

After this fact was proved and officially admitted, it was decided to build the Holocaust Memorial in Jewry place.

In 2006 works were carried out, the Memorial had to be opened on the 22nd of December, 2006, but at night on the 20th of December swastika was drawn on it and offensive words were written.

It gives another proof that anti-Semitic tricks may be everywhere, even in such multinational, national tolerant region as Donbass.

As a result, the Memorial was opened a bit later, on the 26th of December, 2006. The Memorial has Jewish symbols, memorization words in Russian and Hebrew.

The first Holocaust Memorial has interesting fate. This Memorial was not official, and very few people knew about it. Its author was Naum Ginzburg, famous Donetsk sculptor. His wife and daughter were killed by fascists. He didn’t succeed to find their grave. Then he sculptured a headstone for them in Mushketovsky graveyard. The sculpture images dead members of his family, and a bit aside there is figure covered by tallit and bent from mourn symbolizing himself. He was working on his creation during 25 years and completed it in 1972. We can imagine what it meant to build a memorial with tallit in those years.

However, firstly, as he was in the graveyard, few people knew about it, secondly, for most of visitors it was common headstone, and only those, who knew the meaning of tallit, understood everything. Thus, the Memorial was hidden, and only those people understood for whom it was supposed to.

During the last 20 years multitude of educational seminars and conferences devoted to Disaster were held within various Jewish organizations.

The Holocaust history is taught at Jewish comprehensive and Sunday schools.

Jewish historians and researchers wrote dozens works about that.

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Special mention must be made of M. Kogan, whose activity considerably influenced on recognition of Jewry existence in Donetsk.

There are meetings held of veterans of the Great Patriotic War, the Jews survived from the Holocaust. Representatives of Israel embassies arrived to Donetsk, righteous gentile rewarding ceremonies were held.

Unique project was making of film “Judenfrei” by D. Senatorov, Donetsk young director. The film is devoted to the Holocaust in Donetsk region, it shows facts, documents, eyewitnesses stories. The film involves the Jews survived from the Holocaust, as well as righteous gentile, witnesses, the Holocaust researchers. The film gives great emotional impact.

The Jewish Agency for Israel (JAFI) and Midreshet Yerushalayim seriously look into the Holocaust matter. Several times a year they hold one-day seminars, which include visiting of the museum, the pit, Jewry Memorial, combining the excursion with commemorative ceremony, as well as series of lectures on this matter.

Such seminars combine intellectual and emotional approaches, they are held for general and various audience. They give interesting information and materials to participants, as well as feeling of involvement and do not leave anyone indifferent.

The Jewish Agency for Israel (JAFI) has included teaching of the Holocaust history into Jewish Identity Education Project. Within the Open University of Israel the course “Holocaust” is the most popular.

The individual project was preparation of Jewish youth, which takes part in the trips to Poland. Before the trip children had to attend the Holocaust lectures.

The Holocaust is also studied at Donetsk higher education institutions. The Holocaust has being taught over 10 years at the Chair of Jewish Sciences of Donetsk National University as elective course for those who wish, irrespective of course, department, and institute. For this period hundreds of students attended such course.  A lot of them took part in conferences devoted to the Holocaust within this academic project. There are students and teachers, who wrote solid research papers (Ye. Suchkova,                   V. Soldatova).

It is important moment in the Holocaust memorialization by student youth. Specific moment is group dissimilarity. Being representatives of different schools, departments, courses and united by interest to such matter, afterwards young people carry this information, feelings, considerations into their groups. Thus, the Holocaust memory is formed among student youth.

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Today the list of universities, which teach Hebrew, Jewish history, incl. studying of the Holocaust, expands. Israel Cultural Center works on it.

In the summer, 2012 Donetsk Association “Ukraine-Israel” issued the book “Tragic Pages of the History” dedicated to the70th anniversary of genocide of Jewish population of Donetsk region. Jewish Community Center regularly holds various conferences and meetings on this matter.

Memorial on the pit of 4/4-bis mine has been taken under patronage of Donetsk Administration of State Protection Service. Owing to this Service, repairs were performed there, and it is kept clean.

It is noteworthy to tell about Donbass Nepokoryonnyi (Unconquerable Donbass)  Museum, which cooperates with different Jewish organizations within the Holocaust studying.

In 1974  Z.I. Bukuyemskaya started research activity intended for investigation of the tragedy in 4/4-bis pit, which included: collection of documents and eye-witnesses’ testimonies, search of witnesses, identification of victims’ surnames and names etc. The activity was carried out on a voluntary basis.

Over the years it took serious form, and as a result in 1983 Donbass Nepokoryonnyi (Unconquerable Donbass) Museum was opened. The Museum started cooperation with different organizations, incl. Jewish ones.

Today Z.I. Bukuyemskaya’s activity is being handed on by G.A. Brokarenko.

Through the help of Claims Conference the Museum made “Jewish room” entirely dedicated to the Holocaust in Donetsk city and region. In other room small cinema hall has been opened, wherein museum visitors’ groups watch the film “Judenfrei”.

 Donbass Nepokoryonnyi (Unconquerable Donbass) Museum arranges excursions for pupils, students, which are devoted not only to the Great Patriotic War, but also to the Holocaust.

There are pupils and students, who wrote class, term, graduation papers concerning the Holocaust. Visiting of the Museum is essential part the Holocaust seminars.

 

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Various international organizations turn to the Museum for assistance and consultation.

Researchers of the Holocaust also fall back upon help of the Museum, which provides them materials.

Most part of this collected book includes materials kindly furnished by G.A. Brokarenko, director of the Museum.

There are even “family cases”, including:

- applications from relatives with request to recognize their relatives as victims of the pit tragedy (or inquiry about confirmation of such fact from any organization).

- testimonies of eyewitnesses or other documents confirming their relatives’ death in the pit;

- recognition certificate from the Museum.

See Attachment 5 for an example of such “family case”.

Perhaps the most important direction of Donbass Nepokoryonnyi (Unconquerable Donbass) Museum’s activity is an identification of surnames and names of people dead in the 4/4-bis mine.

 For today there is a list of 1800 surnames and names, from which more than 700 were officially confirmed. Such activity is being continued. It is quite laborious, as for official recognition it is necessary to collect serious facts-testimonies, stories of eyewitnesses, documents, etc.

It is not easy to do that due to long standing, documents destruction by Nazi, reduction of witnesses’ quantity as the years go by, lack of applications from relatives etc.

See the list in Attachment 6. It should be noted that it has been published for the first time ever. Peruse it, and you may find familiar surnames there…

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Conclusion

Thus, let’s sum up our material.

In the first part of book we showed origination of Donetsk Jewish community from the moment of the city foundation and before the war.

We saw that the Jews always constituted a high percentage of municipal population and were important public, social, intellectual segment.

We noted unique pre-revolutionary location of the city on the border of pale of settlement, border of Ukraine and Don Army region, which significantly influenced on specifics of Jewish community and general specifics of the city.

Also other moments have been reflected, which formed local mentality and peculiarities, – multinationality, role of production etc.

In the second part of book we reflected the Holocaust history.

We saw different peculiarities, which had influence on Donetsk Jews’ fate in the war period. Positive:

- time reserve, as the city was occupied 3,5 months after the beginning of war, which enabled a lot of people to evacuate or leave for the front.

-  large percentage of the Jews engaged in branches and entitled for evacuation;

- regional multinationality and international tolerance, a lot of mixed marriages, traditional contacts between different nationalities conditioned help of  many local residents to the Jews.

Negative:

-  historical memory of the Jews survived during the period of the city occupation by the Germans in 1918 induced them not to trust stories about the Jews slaughter and refuse to leave the city.

-  front closeness motivated the Germans for quick solving Jewish matter;

- absence of natural covers (forests) didn’t enable them to hide outside the urban area;

 

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 - participation of local policemen in solving  Jewish matter by turning in the Jews.

We examined German authorities’ policy concerning the Jews, which was pursued in accordance with well-defined, consecutive scheme:

- registration of the Jews;

- legislative  restrictions (economic, administrative, propagandistic);

- physical confinement in Jewry (on the region territory in camps);

- destruction.

We examined basic aspects of the Holocaust in Donetsk:

- methods (shootings, gas chambers, pit);

- time (October, 1941 –September, 1943, big action at night on the 01st of May, 1942).  

We presented different estimates, researchers’ opinion, witnesses regarding to the number of killed Jews, which varies from 3 up to 25 thousand, also we clarified difficulties with calculations:

- absence of unambiguous documents;

- uncertain number of the Jews due to evacuation and mobilization on the one side, as well as arrival of the Jews from the western regions to Donetsk on the other side;

- masking measures taken by the Germans (pouring of caustic soda into the pit, burst of the pit opening, destruction of archives etc.).

In the third part of the book we described the Holocaust memorialization activity. We saw diversity of this activity in its forms, directions, audience, which totally covers different social classes.

There are also organizations mentioned, which deal with this matter.

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Considerations

And now let’s ponder a bit and draw conclusions. Right away we mention that everyone always draws conclusions guided by own ideology, vision. We can see it even in simple things, for example, when it is raining outside, one decides to take umbrella, another one thinks that  pressure will increase, the third one thinks that it is not necessary to water a garden etc. Let alone more serious things. Therefore, we present our conclusions, however, it doesn’t mean that you should accept them, we just consider them together. It is not intended for imposing of our point of view on somebody, the purpose is entering of the reader into state of search, considerations. In such state the reader may reach own conclusions, find own way, which will develop him/her.

As was said in one movie, “The world is governed by those who understand the reason”.

In our opinion, root cause of this tragedy, likewise of the majority of incomparably petty conflicts - in family, at work etc., is that person seeks cause outside, but not inside. What does it mean? Let’s compare communism and fascism. They are very similar ideologies, at least concerning their realization in the history. Both ideologies declared one group of people to be the highest, and others to be the lowest.

Among the highest categories approximately the following call was spread: “We are the best, but we live poorly because of them. Without them we will have wonderful life”.

As for communism, it declared working class and peasants to be the highest group, and a group, which had to be eliminated, included clergy, officers, nobles etc.

As for fascism, it declared the Aryans to be the highest group, and a group, which had to be eliminated, included the Jews.

In the first example the system had class criterion. The second one had national criterion. However, the essence was the same: happiness of one group was to be reached through elimination of another one.

 

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Because they didn’t see the root of their problems in themselves, they saw it in others in that “bad group, who hinders our life”.

And now there is a question: did it give happiness to those, for the sake of whom they killed? Of course, it didn’t. Did workmen and peasants really get promised paradise? No: there were Civil War, Holodomor, personality cult, Gulag etc. Did the Germans get promised paradise? No: there were the war, thumping losses, defeat of Germany, its separation.

So… it never works.

However, it’s a pity that such calls remain during the whole history.

For mass control we can summarize them into four phrases:

1. Guys, we are the best (doesn’t somebody of “guys” agree).

2. We live badly (average man is always dissatisfied with something).

3. The question is: How’s that, why we are such good people and live badly? (“Guys” are confused.)

4. Answer: it’s all due to them (almost program for action).

It is not important who are in this case “we” and who are “they”- it’s general concept.

And the same things are happened in everyday life: “chief is an idiot”, wife is silly woman”, and “neighbor is a scoundrel”, everyone is guilty, not me. If something is wrong with me, it means that I am or he is guilty. How can I be guilty? Of course, it is simpler to see cause of one’s problems not in one’s mistakes etc., but to see it in someone.

But that is the way in a deadlock. What can we correct except of ourselves? Therefore, we divorce, quarrel, because everyone initially seeks cause in other.

From the viewpoint of Jewish philosophy, human function in this world is to do “tikkun olam” – "repairing the world", which is possible to accomplish only by one way – “tikkun atsmi” – personal reformation. Moreover, man can only influence on himself, reform his personality.  

Almost ideal system comes out: the most important thing, what I should do it is personal reformation; the most real what I can reform it is me again.

And now listen what people talk about: how did a football team play, who made love with a movie star, how much money did official steal – anything, but only not personal reformation.

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Paradox is that people talk about things, which cannot be influenced by them at all, which are not the part of their life, and they call it reality. And if you just hint at personal reformation, self-cultivation etc., they will call them fantasies.

It is funny and sad at the same time.

If a man understands that cause always lies in himself, and he is responsible for everything, what happens with him, thinks, seeks, reforms, so, firstly, he will be good family member, worker, citizen, secondly, there are less chances that such man will be involved into some “ism” calling to kill others for personal happiness, and, thirdly, as we do not live in vacuum, and influence on each other, such man will influence on his circle.

And, perhaps, the most important, even if a man doesn’t have substantial progress in personal reformation, at least, he will be severe foremost on himself rather than others, as he will understand that he should seek cause inside himself, but not outside.

And how this world will repair, if everyone expects reformation from other one?

A man may criticize others only to that extent, within which he reformed himself, however, that one, who is busy with personal reformation, has too much work and no time to root around others.

 In the end of our book, after all notices there is one photo. Among multitude of available pictures relating to the Holocaust in Donetsk we decided to include only one into the book.

It is a photo of Rita Kartenbaum, 5-year old Jewish girl, who was thrown into the pit.

Those, who killed her, probably didn’t think about anything, they were executors; anyway, it doesn’t condone their behavior, because everyone has right of choice.

They were standing for their leading ideology, which declared Rita Kartenbaum,      5-year old Jewish girl from Ukraine, to be epitome of world evil. Peer through this photo and just think…

Dear friends, we would be glad to receive your comments, critics, ideas, offers via email: Ця електронна адреса захищена від спам-ботів. вам потрібно увімкнути JavaScript, щоб побачити її. .

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List of Reference

             1. M.M. Altman. Negation of the Holocaust: history and modern trends. M.: The Holocaust Fund, ZHAG-VM Journalistic Publishing Agency, 200140 p.

            2. A.I. Kruglov. Extermination of Jewish population in the Left-bank Ukraine (military administration zone) in 19411942.  

            3. Mehman Dan, the Holocaust. – The Open University of Israel, 1995.

            4. Yair Auron. The Pain of Knowledge. – The Open University of Israel, 2005.

            5. Ye.Yu. Suchkova. Consequences of the Holocaust in Donetsk region // Historical and politological research. – 2007. – 1/2 (31/32).

            6. Ye.Yu. Suchkova, V.I. Soldatova. Anti-Semitic propaganda on pages of occupation newspapers of Stalino city, Bahmut, Gorlovka and Konstantinovka towns (19411943) // Historical and politological research. 2008. 1/2 (37/38).

            7. Ye.Yu. Suchkova. Individual aspects of studying of Jewish population of Stalino region in enumeration materials for the year 1939. // Historical and politological research. 2003. 2 (14).

            8. V.P. Styopkin, V.I. Gergel. Full history of Donetsk. Donetsk: Donetsk: Apex, 2008.560 p., illus 16 p.

            9. I.S. Tarnavskiy. Demonstration of collaboration in Donetsk region during the Second World War // New pages of Donbass history. 2007. B. 13/14. P. 33-51.

            10. I.S. Tarnavskiy. Fascist genocide against Jewish population of Donetsk region (1941-1943) // Reporter of Donetsk University. Humanities. 1998 Issue 2.

            11. D.M. Titarenko. The Holocaust in Donetsk region during Nazi’s occupation: some controversial problem aspects // New pages of Donbass history: Collector of articles. Donetsk: Donetsk State University, 2008. B.15, 16 P. 27-49.

            12. Website “Yad va-Shem”: http://www.yadvashem.org

            13. Website “Donetsk, history, events, facts”: infodon.org.ua

            14. D. Senatorov. Documentary film “Judenfrei”. Donetsk, 2007.

            16. Assembling of Nasha Zhyzn Donetsk Jewish Newspaper.

 

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Attachment 1

 

A.D. Polozhentsev’s story

During temporary occupation of Stalino city in 1941–1943 Nazi invaders made atrocities on the occupied territory. More than 75 thousand people were thrown into   4/4-bis mine in Kalinovka, among which one man, Polozhentsev Aleksandr Danilovich survived.

The Committee for Investigation of Misdeeds Committed by Invaders on Donbass Territory involved A.D. Polozhentsev as a witness, which is evidenced by record of interrogation dd. 03rd of February,1944 in Stalino city.

 Polozhentsev Aleksandr Danilovich, year of birth 1915, born in Stalino city, non-party, higher education, graduated from the Department of Chemistry of Saratov University. Before war with Germany he was working as scientific worker of research laboratory of Institute of Mine Rescue Units of Makeyevka town, Stalino region.

He was living on the temporary occupied territory. In 1942 he was arrested by Nazi invaders, carried away for shooting, beaten and was thrown alive into 4/4-bis mine. He stayed illegal. In January, 1943 together with guerrilla group he joined operating units of Red Army. He serves as senior rifleman-bombardier of air squadron, lieutenant. His family lives at the address: 26, Stakhanova St., Kalinovka, Stalino city.

During interrogation he told the following: on the 30th of June, 1942 I was arrested by police in Kramatorsk town, and further I was carried to field gendarmerie of Stalino city. There, on the 06th of July, 1942 I was carried out without trial with other 15 Soviet citizens to 4/4-bis mine, wherein they were shot, and I tried to escape and was beaten, and thrown alive into the mine.

In the beginning of war with Germany, several times I applied to district military commissariat for calling up for military service, but all the time I got refusal. After occupation of Stalino city I decided to leave the city and join Red Army. On the way to the front line, on the outskirts of Kramatorsk town, on the 30th of June, 1942 I was arrested by police. During interrogation they stated that I was a parachutist. I wasn’t repeatedly called in for interrogation. On the 02nd of July, 1942 I was carried by pickup truck to Stalino city. Arrested Soviet citizens were carried together with me.

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Among them I remember Kuzmenko – 52 years old, Korabelkov  – father 48 years old and son 20 years old, Vasya – 14 years old from Gorodovka village of Krasnoarmeysk town, he was garbed in Italian battle suit, wherefore he was nicknamed as Italian, he was in communication with underground organization and  was often called in for interrogation, he was being beaten severely, but didn’t tell anything about himself, Ustenko from Selidovo, agronomist, old man about 60 years old – collective farmer with a boy about 8-9 years old, Nikishyna Lyudmyla – 38 years old, after beating she went out of her mind, there were also several men and old lady.

We were carried to field gendarmerie located on the corner of Komsomolskaya and Pushkinskaya streets. On the second floor of this building they told all of us to put our things in the corner. They took away my knapsack, shaving accessories, tights, trousers, undershirt, training shoes from my feet.

I was put in basement ward, and after 30-40 minutes I was carried to the prison on the third line. I was staying in preliminary detention ward, then in the ward No. 6, where up to 60 people were staying in. The ward was being refilled with arrested people, about 3-10 people were taken away, so, its habitants were changing.

On the 04th of July I was called in for interrogation to field gendarmerie. I was accused of connection with guerillas and crypto. I pleaded not guilty. Everyone was beaten cruelly during interrogations. On the 06th of July, 1942 we were taken away from wards to the yard, then 15 people were handed in the bus and carried to the yard of 4/4-bis mine. One by one we were taken out of the bus, brought inside the mine, where from we heard shots. I hid behind the back seat, and they didn’t notice me. The guard sat in the bus and went out of the yard. After they had moved a bit, they noticed hidden man in the bus and turned back the bus to the mine yard. They started beating me in the bus, at that time I hit one of the guards. Then they beat me severely on the ground, and they decided that I was dead and threw me into the mine. While falling along the shaft, I snapped at rope. I was swinging on the rope and went downstairs. I grabbled a hole and got into it supposing that it was by-lane of the mine. While passing this by-lane, I found rough logs, but there wasn’t outcrop. I took a rest, fell asleep and came back to the shaft. After beating I felt severe pain in hands, back, belly and legs. My right hand was swelling and didn’t function. I do not know how long I was seating near the shaft. I heard how cars approached the yard, shots and screams of arrested people. I saw how dead bodies of shot people were falling along the shaft. Once I counted 50 shots.

 

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After some time they threw 14 people more, who were thrown naked or in underwear. Near the shaft in entry I found a passport, it was impossible to identify a surname; I read only that its holder was Jewish. I   put the passport in my pocket. I heard also how children came to the shaft and told: “People are thrown there, they are hanging”.

Next day I hooked and pulled up the rope by a stick, and started climbing. I climbed on wire binders, which were next to the shaft wall, two pipes came out of the wall, with a help of which I climbed up. I got to adjacent premises, looked around through the window and went outside to the yard. Through the hole in the fence I got out to the road, following a herd of cattle I went to Kalinovka settlement. I came home, when it fell dark. I was met by my mother, Irina Fedorovna and sister, Kvasova Lidiya, who thought that I was dead, as that day, on the 07th of July, 1942, their parcel wasn’t accepted. I hid on the garret. I was hiding about one month. With a help of my sister I contacted my comrade Pavlyuchen  – medical assistant. He brought Yermolayeva Lidiya, the doctor, who provided medical assistance to me. Pavlyuchen got several documents, from which he used one stock card.  

In August I left home in order to pass across the front. My mother followed me till   N. Ustinovka of Zaporozhye region. On my way I met Sasha, junior commander, who was encircled. Together with him we picked our way to the Caucasus and I joined guerilla forces. I participated in combat operations against German invaders.

On 26th of January, 1943 I with this detachment joined Red Army field forces. I serve as senior rifleman, lieutenant in flying unit.

I arrived on call to Stalino city.

 

I have learned the copy of record in the Regional Archive/Fund 1338,

list 1, unit of storage 52, D-3, p.180-187/

A.A. Chuprunova – chief of Donbass Nepokoryonnyi

(Unconquerable Donbass) Museum search team.

27th of June, 1986

 

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Attachment 2

Witnesses and memories

about Jews destruction in Donetsk city

during the Holocaust period

__________________ 

From memories of Illya Petrovich Zavodeyev

The car with fascist was driven up to the pit. The driver was wearing fascist uniform, but he was Russian.

He drank the bottle of champagne, then he took out a girl about 6 years old, she fell upon him with words: “Mr., don’t shoot, please!”, but fascist didn’t spare her, then he picked up a little infant from the car and threw him into the pit. 

From memories of Girsh Vera Markovna

 

In the time of occupation of Stalino city in 1941-1943 our family, consisting of seven persons, stayed on the occupied territory. Father was sick: he had gastric ulcer and was in the hospital, he had to be operated, but the Germans entered the city, and we took our father home.

In the first days of occupation our father was taken to Gestapo, full name of our father was Khait Mark Abramovich, Gestapo stayed in Donbass Hotel.

After two weeks he was shot and thrown into the pit of 4/4-bis mine. After two months gas chamber came for us, we saw it from the window, broke the window and left (mother, elder brother, brothers and sisters and me), we were hiding in apartments of Jewish families. In early spring of the year 1942, we accommodated three little children in orphanage (in Larinka). I, mother and elder brother left the city, we accommodated the children of 1,2,3 years old, because there was nothing to eat, cold, we thought that it would be better for them in the orphanage, they would eat something there. Brother left towards Volgograd city, I and my mother went in the direction of Kharkov front, but we couldn’t get to the Russians, so, we went towards Dnepropetrovsk city. In Dnepropetrovsk city I and my mother were taken into the camp, which was guarded by the Germans with dogs. In the summer, 1942 we were sent to the harvesting in Dnepropetrovsk region. At night guerilla attacked the board, burned it with all documents, after harvesting we were released and everyone received documents according to oral information. 

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Thus, we received documents for my mother – Kharchenko Mariya Stepanovna, and me – Kharchenko Vera Aleksandrovna. Right there on the farm we met a woman, whose parents were living in the Crimea, outside Krasnoperekopsk town. Her name was Vishnevskaya Vera, and she was with her two-year old daughter Galya. We gathered harvest, the Germans took everything. We didn’t get any pay. I, mother and Vishnevskaya with her daughter came back to Dnepropetrovsk. I went to commandant of the city in order to receive permit to get to Kairka village of Nikolayev region, where Vera Vishnevskaya’s parents lived. I went to the commandant, there was Russian translator, and we received documents for two persons with German seal.

We went towards Zaporozhye city. In Zaporozhye we were picked up by the Czechs into military dock, which passed through Krasnoperekopsk, we travelled hiding under benches. We got off in Krasnoperekopsk and went to Kairka village. In Kairka village we worked in farming, at the beginning we received pay in Ukrainian money, then in Deutsche marks, we bought food at the storeroom. Upon Donbass liberation we came back home and found out that the children were taken to mobile gas chamber and carried to the mine, and thrown into the pit.  Alla, who was working for the Germans, betrayed them.

Alla’s father was a traitor, and upon our troops’ arrival he was shot.

 

June, 1985

Z. I. Bukuyemskaya wrote it according to words of V.M. Girsh

 

From memories of Melnikova Anna Nikiforovna 

I, Melnikova Anna Nikiforovna, born in 1921, stayed on the territory of Stalino city occupied by Nazi during the years 1941-1943.

After a while from occupation, when I came home, my mother told me that she saw our neighbor Khat Sara Yefimovna outside the house 115 at the 1st line (Artema St.), wherein she lived with her family before the occupation, she begged from neighbors and passersby.

I gathered all the food we had and went to that yard (01st line, 115) in order to help Khat Sara Yefimovna and deliver her from such humiliation and begging.

When I came to the yard of house 115 at the 01st line, I saw how Khat Sara Yefimovna was violently taken away from the yard by 2 German soldiers and German officer. The column of arrested Jewish old men, old women, women with children under the guard of the Germans and policemen was already moving down the street.  She was hustled into this column, which continued moving towards the metallurgical plant.

 

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 Neither I, nor my family and nobody else saw or heard something more about Sara Yefimovna Khat.

We knew from eyewitnesses’ stories that the Germans and policemen pushed all the Jews in truck bodies, they were carried to the 4/4-bis mine territory in Kalinovka of Stalino city and were thrown alive into the pit of this mine. 

From memories of Vinnikova Tatyana Fedorovna

We walked to waste piles and to the mine and picked up coal for burning coal in the stove in our apartment. Once, I and my grandfather took the trolley and went for coal. A car passed by and we didn’t pay attention to it. Suddenly the German man appeared and said: “Kaput, kaput”. We thought that he wanted to kill us, and grandfather began begging: ‘Do not touch the girl, take me, - but German man explained that people were thrown into the pit. We couldn’t believe that, but then we found out that people were killed, their bodies were thrown and backfilled by caustic soda.

Then we often saw, how people were shot and thrown into the pit.

People, who were brought for shooting, were forced to undress, mothers were holding small children in arms.

We saw how seamen were led to the mine, they were walking and singing songs. Some people say that such things are only shown in movies, but they indeed were walking and singing. Once a seaman was brought to the pit, and he rushed one German man and jumped with him in the pit. Afterwards the fence was built around the mine.

I had a friend, her name was Raya Korsunskaya from Jewish people. Her mother and 4 children of Korsunskiy family were thrown by the Germans into the pit. Their elder son Yuriy went to a village to exchange commodities, ambush with the Germans was waiting him in his house, but his neighbors warned him, and he hid.

After coming back home we told everything we saw.

We were so scared that we couldn’t leave our home far. 

From memories of Yakov Karlin

Our family consisted of 6 persons. Father – Karlin Mikhail (Khaim) Grigoryevich, year of birth 1906, mother – Karlina (Krivitskaya) Reveka Mikhaylovna (Sura-Riva Khaymovna), year of birth 1910, I – Karlin Yakov Mikhaylovich, year of birth 1931, brother – Karlin Semen Mikhaylovich, year of birth1934, sister – Karlina Alla Mkihaylovna, year of birth 1938, grandmother (mother’s mother) – Krivitskaya Khana-Rukhl Yankelevna, year of birth 1888. 

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In May, 1941 my father was drafted into the Red Army. In August, 1941, when Stalino (Donetsk) city was under the threat of occupation, our family tried  to evacuate in horse carts.

Of course we couldn’t go far. The Germans blocked a road, and we came back to Stalino city.

The whole autumn of the year 1941 and the early winter of the year 1942, we lived in house 101 at the 10th line (Shakhtnaya  St.), but the householder, policeman Velichko, turned us out of the house, and we moved to the 8th line, house 75, where my grandfather (father’s father) – Karlin Grigoriy (Girlshber) Berkovich lived. He was a rabbi, but after closing of synagogue, he worked in mine as coal-face worker in order to maintain his family. Grandfather died in winter of the year 1942. We lived common Jewish life on the occupied territory. We underwent everything: continuous starvation, wearing of  the Star of David on cloth, complete indignity and discrimination in everything – from trips in trams (special seats) till the possibility to fill a bucket with water (The Jews took the last).

In spring of the year 1942 policemen and the Germans gathered all the Jews into Jewry located in White Open Pit.

In the time of our family’s transfer to Jewry, my mother wasn’t at home. When she came back home, neighbors told her what had happened, and mother went to our friends – Kolodko Kseniya Nikolayevna, residing at the address: 10th line, 105, who left my mother in her house despite life risk of her family members. Mother lived there on the attic about 1 month. We, while staying in Jewry, didn’t know where our mother was and thought that she died.

In April, 1942 after several weeks from our resettlement to Jewry, my aunt- Krivitskaya Tamara Petrovna, (sister-in-law of my mother) performed a feat: at the risk of her life she entered White Open Pit and took me away from Jewry. She did it, despite multitude cases, when   people, who wished to survive the Jews, died together with them… Aunt Tamara took me to Rutchenkovo settlement (outskirts of Stalino city), wherein my mother was waiting for me. And I went with my mom to the east towards the front…

In a few days after my leaving Jewry, everyone, who stayed there, including my brother Semen, sister Alla, grandmother Khana-Rukhl Yankelevna and my aunt Betya Izralyevna Krivitskaya with her three underage children were thrown into the mine pit and died.

At that time thousands of city residents-exchangers roamed on roads and exchanged  everything they had for food: from cloth to domestic and farm utensils.

Months-long roving was extremely difficult. Mostly we begged. Sometimes mother worked in farmworkers’ kitchen gardens, she washed cloth, watered plants, took water from well, daubed huts with clay, made up cloth, I grazed gooses and sheep. 

36

But it was very seldom, mostly we begged alms moving from one village to another. And we were so glad, when people gave us potato peelings. In spring we ate nettle soup and digging out potato, which was left on fields after winter.

Besides starvation we had other suffering. Especially me. It is hard to imagine, but for the whole time I hadn’t washed in bath-house or water bodies. My mother just wiped me with wet cloth and only in summer. If I had taken off clothes once, it would have meant certain death for me. Because I was circumcised. Village children of my swam only naked. And if I had appeared in underpants, it would have arisen suspicion.

Besides that, in the end of the year 1942, in winter, my finger on the right hand began to ache. This illness was known as paronychia, i.e. the finger was rankling alive exuding disgusting smell and causing me cruel suffering.

Therefore, in that period I couldn’t stay in any house, and I slept in unheated sheds and in straw stacks, even in winter. One village “wise woman” saved me, she “took out paronychia” from my finger.

Several times we were on the verge of disclosure, arrest and death consequently. A miracle saved us. I can see now that God didn’t let to kill me and my mother, as in that time only He was able to do that…

When we left Stalino city, we had nothing, except of cloth on us, I walked without footwear, my feet were wrapped by rags.

We hadn’t any documents.

It frightened us very much, especially my mother, I thought only about food. 

Any policeman or village head could arrest us.  In one of the villages it happened with us. We were brought to the head. My mother explained that we were going to exchange, but we were robbed, and robbers took everything, incl. documents. He looked at us, didn’t say anything and went into the house. We thought that he was going to call policemen and braced ourselves for the worst.

But he came out with a pen and inkstand, he wrote and gave us certificate with seal confirming that we were robbed and all things together with documents were taken. We showed this certificate every time during the check of documents.

Our wandering in rural areas of Kharkov and Kursk regions occupied by the Germans lasted through to August, 1943.

Once, while staying in a cellar in Zorinka village (somehow its name is survived in my memory), which several times was passed from hand to hand­ from the Germans to our troops and vice-versa, we came out and revealed that we were liberated…

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In October, 1943 we came back to Stalino city and got to know about tragic fate of our relatives, who stayed in Jewry. Application to Ukrainian authorities regarding to our close relative and for any help were out of the question. We were considered to be traitors.

Passports were not issued to all those, who stayed on the occupied territory, they couldn’t be registered and employed consequently.

My mother hardly succeeded to receive a certificate at Housing Department, which partially substituted passport and gave chance for employment. Soon she was employed as a dishwasher at Factory Apprenticeship School. She made hidden pockets and brought home pupils’ uneaten food.

We were not given ration cards, therefore, we were still starving. In August, 1944, in the age of 14 years old I was employed as lab assistant at Fotomystetstvo artel, and at last I received bread ticket… 

From memories of Rubtsova Natalya Yefimovna 

In autumn of the year 1941, I do not remember what month exactly was, when troops of Red Army left Stalino city, which afterwards was occupied by the Germans till the 07th of September, 1943. For the period of their domination German authorities had shot a lot of civilians, some of them I know personally, as I was an eyewitness.

My sister Trushakova Pelageya Yefimovna, whom I visited many times, lives on the territory of nursery, which is located behind Macaroni Factory towards Makeyevka town.

Once, in autumn of the year 1941, in the end of October or in the beginning of November I went again to my sister and heard from women, one of which was Gurtovaya Nadezhda and two more unknown persons, who were standing near their houses, that the Germans shot Russian civilians, mostly the Jews, and all these shots were on the territory of nursery near pits, which had been made beforehand.  This conversation caught my interest, and I decided to go to those pits and make sure that such talks were true.  I approached to one pit together with Malin Pyotr Ivanovich, who lives in old settlement, I do not know exactly in which house he lives. When we had approached to the pit, it was full of dead bodies of the Soviet citizens, and at the top of it there was dead body of young woman. After that case I came there several times and saw two more pits filled with dead bodies of civilians, who  were brought by German soldiers and officers by cars from Stalino city, Makeyevka and adjacent villages, among dead bodies, besides women, there were children.  

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I know well location of three pits filled with dead bodies of civilians, and I can show them. Besides those three pits, on the territory of nursery there should be some more graves, as the Germans were shooting citizens the whole winter of the years 1941-1942.

Once I came to my sister at three o’clock in the afternoon, I do not remember the day and month, and I heard shots, whereof I counted 13 shots, I was interested and came out to the yard, and saw how empty truck and passenger car pulled out from one of the pits, and after them one more passenger car and truck was driven up to the pit. In the passenger car there were German officers, and civilians in the truck, I do not know exactly how many of them were there, but I heard 7 shots, therefore, we may define that 7 more people were shot.

During the shots, I heard cries, it appeared that little children were shot with these people.

By spring of the year 1942, there had not been new shots heard on the territory of nursery, as the Germans began shooting civilians in the mine No 4 and threw dead bodies into this mine shaft. I live near this mine and often heard shots on the territory of mine. Besides that, one German man, who stayed in the apartment not far from my house, babbled out that once they shot 70 people in the mine.

Signature

 

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Attachment 3

Conclusion of Expert Commission regarding to the tragedy in 4/4-bis mine pit

______________________________________________________

Before escape from the city the Germans in fear of responsibility for their awful evil deeds during five days were blowing up mine head-frame and concrete shaft mouth in order to bury it in and thereby to conceal traces of their mass atrocities over the Soviet people. Since 17.01 till 23.01.1944 a team of mine-rescuers consisting of 13 persons in the presence of members of board and crowd of residents surrounding the settlement took dead bodies out on the surface. Totally 112 dead bodies were taken out for forensic tests and assignment of their death cause. They succeeded to take out entire dead bodies only in the upper part of the shaft, the following layers of dead bodies in the mine appeared to be the separate parts of bodies.

Conclusion

Forensic tests of 112 dead bodies, which were taken out from 4/4-bis mine in Stalino (Donetsk) city from the depth of 65 meters, established the following:

1. Among extracted dead bodies there are dead bodies of men in the quantity of 61 persons, women in the quantity of 23 persons and children in the age from 10 up to 18 years old in the quantity of 7 persons, due to finding of separate parts of dead bodies, their sex wasn’t identified.

3*. On 47 bodies or their parts there was not any cloth found, on other dead bodies their cloth was decomposed underwear, dress or trousers, and only sometimes we could see more or less safe outwear due to cloth of dense texture (military clothing, special clothing).

5* All dead bodies have evident signs of maceration, some of them have grave wax, which reveal that dead bodies long time remained  in water or humid environment.

7*. Skulls have two types of injuries: firearm and blunt, where the majority of skulls have the same type of injuries, with considerable breakdown of facial skeleton. In 54 cases dead bodies were taken out from mine without skulls.

____________________________________________________________

*  Appears this way in the document 

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8. Large quantity of dead bodies (53 of 112) has broken upper and lower limbs with crushed bones and pelvic bones; 20 dead bodies have multiple fractures of skeleton bones.

9. 9 dead bodies were revealed with tightly tied hands behind their backs with wire or rope.

10. In 5 cases we found tying of two or three people together.

Detailed examination of 14 skulls showed that 12 of them have gunshot wounds; one dead body has   injuries made by sharp piercing and blunt object with bounded surface. One skull is so crushed that it is not impossible to identify the type of injuries. In one case gunshot wound is combined with skull bones injury with some blunt solid object with bounded surface.

Type of skull bones breakdown, as well as presence of additional elements of charge (soot) on bones within entrance perforation indicate that shots were made at full and partial point-blank range from highly destructive fire arms.

Direction of bullets in all examined cases (except of one, where the shot was made in the temporal region) is back to front, which indicates that shots were made at the back, and collocation of entrance and exit perforations point to consider that at the moment of shot the head was tilted forward and down, and the chin was pinned to the upper part of breast.

In view of the foregoing the forensic expert board has reached the following conclusion:

 

1. The wholesale slaughter of the Soviet citizens was executed in the 4/4 bis mine, at that, during the last period of German occupation they were basically shot in the occipital region of head.

2. Pit with fractures, which has been revealed on skull bones, having firearm perforations, testifies that before or at the time of gunshot wound a blow was fetched on the head with blunt solid object.

3. The period of dead bodies’ stay in the 4/4-bis mine, which were taken out from the upper layers of human bodies filling the mine, is about 6-7 months. 

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4. We found multiple fractures of limbs and other skeleton bones, also in some cases skull bones could be broken, when dead bodies were thrown into the mine shaft and struck the wall and metal structures.

5. Along with extermination of civilians-men, women and children, prisoners of war from the Red Army were also killed.

6. Shooting method on the 4/4-bis mine-occiput shot, which is identical with the way of extermination of the Soviet citizens by fascists in other USSR cities under German occupation, such as, for example, in Smolensk, Kharkov, Orel, Krasnodar, Voronezh.

7. As for total quantity of dead bodies of tortured Soviet citizens, which could stay in the 4/4-bis mine, it is impossible to make exact calculation of such quantity, however, taking into consideration the period, during which the mine was being filled with dead bodies (since December, 1941 till September, 1943), the mine capacity, level of dead bodies occurrence at the moment of their extraction, volume of dead bodies, as well as the fact that despite observed flow of water in the mine, dead bodies do not float up and remain under water, this points out that dead bodies stay on the solid basis and do not float, it is ought to consider that number of dead bodies amounts to several tens of thousands.

In view of that mine capacity, except of its eastern part, wherein there is not full filling with dead bodies, equals 2777,6 cub. m, volume of one dead body can be taken in figures as  cub. m, on the assumption that some dead bodies could get into the eastern part of the mine shaft and flat, forensic expert board defines total number of victims thrown by German occupants into the 4/4-bis mine, not less than 75 thousand persons.

 General conclusions

1. Almost during two years of domination of Nazi occupants in temporarily occupied Stalino city they regularly exterminated the Soviet citizens, both civilians and prisoners of war from the Red Army. They exterminated not only healthy menfolk, as well as disabled people, women, teenagers and even infants. 

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2. Nazi monsters applied different methods for slaughter of the Soviet citizens: victims of barbarous fascist regime were thrown alive into the mine shaft, poisoned in gas-chambers, harried to death in torture places, and their dead bodies were sewed up in bags and thrown into the shaft. In fear of their victims they tried to make themselves safe from their resistance, German executioners tied hands of defenceless Soviet people; sometimes they tied them together before the shooting. In most cases victims took off their clothes, their clothes were taken by executioners and their servers.

3. The 4/4-bis mine, the shaft of which is filled by human dead bodies at depth almost 1/3 km, is enormous mass grave, wherein minimum 75 thousands Soviet citizens were buried.

Human history doesn’t know any other similar precedents, when such a vast number of innocent victims were killed in one place.

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Attachment 4 

Abbreviates of trial against Eichman – Yuzovka burgomaster

______________________________________________ 

From testimony of Eichman-Yuzovka burgomaster

 

“…In the end of February, 1942 Galderberg, Gestapo representative, arrived from Berlin to the Security Department, and together with Graf he came to me and Petushkov to Municipal Administration, wherein on the joint meeting with chiefs of police and district burgomasters it was decided to establish Jewish Community “Jewry” in certain place, wherein all Jewish population had to be moved, incl. children and old people. White Open Pit located near Balfour Bridge was chosen for Jewry” (from the record of A.A. Eichman’s interrogation dd. 28th of April, 1946) […]

“Basic purpose of such choice was placement of the camp somewhere in the city outskirts, in order to hide it from great masses of the population” (from the record of trial of the Garrison Military Tribunal of Stalino city dd. 16-24 of September, 1946) […]

“White Open Pit located near Balfour Bridge was chosen for Jewry. For such activities I - Eichman, Petushkov and Dolgov received orders to evict all people from dugouts there within three days, the open pit was fenced in with barbed wire and policemen guard was posted.  This activity was fulfilled within two days.

In March, 1942 we gave orders to chiefs of police and district burgomasters to gather all Jewish population into Jewry, at that, every family was offered to take valuables, the best clothes and food for five-six days, their keys had to be passed to police, which made resettlement. As a result of such activities, those families were being whipped in from all districts, weak people and children were supported or carried in arms, policemen whipped them up with lashes and butts, moan, screams and children’s crying was heard. All that population was whipped in the designated place, and due to the limited quantity of dugouts some of them stayed in the open air. All valuables and property of those families were seized and passed to the Security Department, and gathered Jewish population – more than 3 thousand people were shot and poisoned in special mobile gas-chambers, dead bodies of which were thrown into the mine shaft in Kalinovka. Afterwards policemen destructed those dugouts” (from the record of A.A. Eichman’s interrogation dd. 28th of April, 1946) […] 

44

“… It is a fact that the Jews were exterminated, some of them survived only by a miracle” (from the record of trial dd. 16-24th of September, 1946) […] 

From witness testimony of  B.A. Geker

“As I stated above that after Stalino city occupation by German troops Jewish Community was established under the order of Municipal Administration, whereupon all the Jews, irrespective of their age, had to wear arm bands. Then all people with bands-doctors, teachers, children, women, old people were sent to rough works for German occupants. I, being sick woman of advanced age, was sent by policemen from 3 police stations, I do not know their surnames, for snow clearing, dismantling of houses blocked by bricks and other hard works. This Jewish Community was established in November, 1941. Afterwards, I got to know that according to the Order of Municipal Administration of Stalino city, which was placarded through the city, Jewish population was laid under contribution in the amount of 3 million rubles at first and up to 8 million rubles later. As I didn’t have money, I couldn’t pay such sum. Those, who didn’t pay, were robbed. In particular, when it was declared about payment of contribution, and I couldn’t pay my rate for it, policemen came to me and took all the furniture and clothes. Thus, having robbed Jewish population, I and other Jews were arrested together with small children, old people and sent to the White Open Pit, wherefore they specially declared. I know about issue of decrees concerning persecution of the Jews according to my daughter’s words, who read such decrees, I also heard about that from other Jews, who were in communities. In the beginning of the year 1942, I do not remember what month exactly, I together with my 12-year old son, my relatives – daughter, sister, who had daughter with two children, daughter-in-law- everyone of Jewish nationality with arm bands, which we had to wear in accordance with decrees of German authorities, were brought under the guard to the open pit, by that time a lot of Jews had been there: women, children and old people. I stayed there till the 30th of April, 1942. While staying in White Open Pit, every morning policemen came to us, I do not know from which stations they were and their surnames, chose men and women in groups of 10, 20 and 100 persons and took somewhere for work, part of them came back and others disappeared without a trace. 

45

While staying in the Open Pit, all Jewish population lived in gutted houses, without windows and doors, outside, moreover, there were winter months, cold, food wasn’t given at all, I and other Soviet citizens were starving, children and old people died of starvation, but nobody paid attention to it (on the trial B.A. Geker testified that people in Jewry were given 200 g of bread per day […]). When we asked policemen for bread, they allegedly stated that we had robbed all shops after retreat of the Red Army from Donbass. While staying in this White Open Pit, I and other Jews were whipped for hard works in the first police station of Stalino city at the 3rd line, wherein we were forced to carry logs, boards, do out toilets and clean up the yard of the police station. While being at work in the 1st police station approximately in March, 1942, I saw, how from this station more than 50 arrested Soviet citizens and the Jews, incl. children, girls, were handed in a truck. Near the truck a girl about 15-16 years old was standing and crying, two policemen took her and threw her in a body of the truck, then the truck left, and I do not know where …

On the 30th of April, 1942 at 2 o’clock a.m. policemen and the Germans came to us and announced that we had to pack our staff, take bread for three days, gold things, good clothes: “We are transferring you to another place of residence and work”. Someone of the Soviet citizens told that we would be carried for shooting. I told my son to run, and I went to the toilet, then to ravine, I was lying there several hours, then I ran from Stalino to Poltava region, wherein I gave myself out as Polish woman. As for my relatives consisting of 28 persons in this Open Pit, -they have not come back, I do not know anything about their location and fate…” (from the record of interrogation of B.A. Geker dd. 12th of July, 1946). 

From witness testimony of G.L. Iofis

“… Municipal Administration, which was headed by Petushkov and Eichman, subordinated municipal and district police, through the police Eichman and Petushkov exterminated the Soviet citizens of Jewish nationality. By their orders every day police arrested Jewish families, brutalized them, then police and Gestapo exterminated those citizens and threw them into the shaft of the 4/4-bis mine in Kalinovka. 

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Later, in March, 1942, remaining Soviet citizens of Jewish nationality were massively arrested by Stalino and district police and whipped in open pits (White Open Pit of Stalino city), and their apartments were robbed. Municipal Administration forbade such citizens to come out from this Open Pit to the market and other places. Afterwards, the police guarded those citizens in open pits, then, in the end of April, 1942, all that population was exterminated and their dead bodies were thrown into the shaft of the 4/4-bis mine. More than 300 families stayed in open pits …” (from the record of interrogation of G. L. Iofis dd. 10th of July, 1946). 

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Attachment 5

 

Example of Donbass Nepokoryonnyi (Unconquerable Donbass) Museum victims

memorial activity

tears_of_the_holocaust_001

__________________________________________________

 

48

tears_of_the_holocaust_002 

 

49

tears_of_the_holocaust_003 

50

tears_of_the_holocaust_004 

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Attachment 6 

Complete list of surnames and

 names of people dead in 4/4-bis mine 

1

Abramson Bronya Yudovna

 

1898

2

Abramson Lew Yakovlevich

 

 

3

Abramson Olga Lvovna

 

13 years

4

Abramson Rakhil Abramovna

 

 

5

Abramson Sima Abramovna

 

 

6

Agashkova Sima Abramovna

 

1914

7

Agromova

Khartsyzsk

 

8

Agroponik

mother

 

9

Agroponik

father

 

10

Agroponik

child

 

11

Agroponik

child

 

12

Agroponik

child

 

13

Agroponik

child

 

14

Adamov Boris Aleksandrovich

 

1888

15

Azarov A.L.

Khartsyzsk

 

16

Aksyonov V.

 

 

17

Aksyonov A.

Khartsyzsk

 

18

Alekseyev Pavel

 

 

19

Alyokhin M.N.

Khartsyzsk

 

20

Alter Mikhail Vasilyevich

 

 

21

Alter Samuil Samoylovich

 

 

22

Ampilogov

Khartsyzsk

 

23

Anastasov K.G.

Khartsyzsk

 

24

Andreyev B.

Khartsyzsk

 

25

Andreyev B.Kh.

 

1903

26

Anikeyev

 

 

27

Anikiyenko

Khartsyzsk

 

28

Arenkov David Moiseyevich

 

1880

29

Arenkov Lev

 

13 years

30

Arenkova Dora

 

1885

31

Artamonov V.T.

Khartsyzsk

 

 

52 

32

Arkhipov G.M.

Khartsyzsk

 

33

Afanasyev Roman Vasilyevich

 

1886(70)

34

Afonin Yakov Vasilyevich

 

1888

35

Akhtyrskaya

Khartsyzsk

 

36

Babushkin A.N.

 

1908

37

Banchevskaya Anna Vulfovna

 

1902

38

Banchevskaya Yelena Abramovna

 

1907

39

Banchevskaya Mariya Abramovna

 

1911

40

Banchevskaya Faina Naumovna

 

1902

41

Banchevskaya-Zogot A.A.

 

1912

42

Banchevskiy Abram Pavlovich

 

1872

43

Banchevskiy Iosif Abramovich

 

1904

44

Banchevsky Lev Abram.

 

1929

45

Banchevskiy Naum Iosif.

 

1935

46

Banchevskiy Pavel Abram.

 

1932

47

Banchevskiy Pavel Iosif.

 

1940

48

Batelman Nuta Veniaminovna

 

1890

49

Bezrozum Ary Abramovich

 

1899

50

Bezrozum Beyla Moyshevna

 

 

51

Bezrozum Rakhil Aronovna

 

1918

52

Bezrozum Sonya

 

8 years

53

Bezrozum Khaya Aronovna

 

 

54

Bezrozum Tsypa Aronovna

 

 

55

Belenkaya Olga Pavlovna

 

1814

56

Belenkaya Fanya Davydovna

 

1879

57

Belenkiy Pavel Leontyevich

 

1874

58

Belitskiy Mikhail Aleksandrovich

 

1895

59

Belobrov Senya

 

 

60

Belobrova Minya Aronovna

 

 

61

Belokon Mikhail Petrovich

 

 

62

Belous A.M.

Khartsyzsk

 

63

Berezin Aron Borisovich

 

1930

64

Berezin Aron Natanovich

 

1897

65

Berezina Bella Natanovna

 

1903

66

Berezina Nekhama Semyonovna

 

1865

67

Berezina Olga Borisovna

 

1936

68

Berezina Faina Borisovna

 

1938

69

Bertha Volke Utek

 

 

70

Biryukov S.F.

Khartsyzsk

 

71

Bisikova M. 

 

 

 

53 

72

Bisikova S.

 

 

73

Blank Bella Petrovna

 

 

74

Blank Pinya Moiseyevich

 

 

75

Blank Rakhil Iosifovna

 

 

76

Bogopolskiy I.B.

Khartsyzsk

 

77

Boyko T.I.

Khartsyzsk

 

78

Bokser Vladimir

 

 

79

Bokser Vladimir and family (5 persons)

Khartsyzsk

 

80

Brailovskaya Polina

 

1885

81

Brailovskaya Khana

 

1880

82

Brailovskaya-Zuser Mina Abramovna

 

1911

83

Brashovskiy Grigoriy Abramovich

 

1926

84

Bresler Yelizaveta Lvovna

 

1911

85

Bresler Merekhana Abramovna

 

1885

86

Bresler Sara Lvovna

 

1923

87

Bresler Yakov Lvovich

 

1917

88

Brozgol Anna Isaakovna

 

1938

89

Brozgol David Isaakovich

 

1940

90

Brozgol Isaak Rakhimovich

 

1900

91

Brozgol Mariya Leybovna

 

1900

92

Brozgol Moisey Leybovich

 

1900

93

Brozgol Nina Isaakovna

 

1936

94

Bronshteyn Yevgeniy

 

1927

95

Brofman Anna Borisovna

 

1918

96

Brofman Bella Borisovna

 

1921

97

Brofman Yelena Borisovna

 

1918

98

Brofman Roza Borisovna

 

1924

99

Brukman Khaya-Ester

 

1854

100

Butovskiy Aleksandr Ivanovich

 

1911

101

Vaynshteyn Ye.M.

 

 

102

Vaysburg Abram Isayevich

 

1934

103

Vaysburg Khaya Isayevna

 

1922

104

Vaysburg Tsilya Isayevna

 

1929

105

Vaysburg Ella

 

1896

106

Vaks

 

6 years

107

Vaks Yevgeniya Yakovlevna

 

1922

108

Vaks Yevgeniya Yakovlevna

 

5 years

109

Vasserman R.L.

 

1895

110

Vasserman Regina Davydovna

 

1891

111

Vasserman Regina Davydovna

 

1895

 

54 

112

Vasya („Italian“ Gorodovki village)

 

14 years

113

Veysbeyn (Beysbeyn) Basya Abramovna

 

1896

114

Vilin(ov) Dmitriy Ilich

 

1931

115

Vilin(ov) Ilya Abramovich

 

1898

116

Vilin(ov)a Asya Semyonovna

 

1900

117

Vilin(ov)a Yekaterina Ilinichna

 

1929

118

Vilin(ov)a Raya Ilinichna

 

 

119

Volotkowskiy Gerasim Andreyevich

 

 

120

Voronkova Taisiya Samuilovna

Khartsyzsk

1908

121

Gavrilov Andrey Ivanovich

 

1918

122

Galperin Gennadiy Yakovlevich

 

1935

123

Galperina Golda Moiseyevna

 

1918

124

Garkovets Timofey Iosifovich

 

 

125

Gatsula Yelena Karpovna

 

1932

126

Genyuk Viktor Pavlovich

 

 

127

German Vladimir

 

1922

128

Geukherova-Kholod Olga Aleksandrovna

 

 

129

Girzhel

child

2 years

130

Girzhel Yelizaveta Andreyevna

 

1911

131

Girzhel Semyon Abramovich

 

1937

132

Gitlina Debora Aleksandrovna

 

1933

133

Gitlina Rakhil Abramovna

 

1860

134

Gitlina Rakhil Iosifovna

 

1900

135

Gitlina Yuliya Aleksandrovna

 

1924

136

Gladusha Nikolay Kalyanovich (Ulyanovich)

 

 

137

Glazunov Aleksandr Aleksandrovich

 

 

138

Glikina Golda

 

1985

139

Govorov Aleksandr Grigoryevich

 

1888

140

Goda Galina N.(P.)

 

1918

141

Golin Mikhail Leontyevich

 

1882

142

Golina Sarra Yakovlevna

 

1889

143

Golobacheva Lidiya

 

 

144

Golobacheva Mariya Andreyevna

 

1914

145

Golovan Ivan Grigoryevich

 

 

146

Goloshchapov Terentiy Ivanovich

 

1886

147

Gold(ts)man Abram Grigoryevich

 

1903

148

Gold(ts)man Grigoriy Abramovich

 

1935

149

Gold(ts)man Zev Abramovich

 

1929

150

Gold(ts)man M.Ye.

 

7 years

151

Goldberg I.

 

1886

 

55 

152

Goldberg A.I.

 

1916

153

Goldman Abram Grigoryevich

 

1903

154

Goldman Alla Izrailevna

 

1884

155

Goldman B.L.

 

7 years

156

Goldman Grigoriy Abramovich

 

1935

157

Goldman Ilya Yeliseyevich

 

1888

158

Goldman M.K.

 

1961

159

Goldshteyn Mikhail Matveyevich

 

1921

160

Goldshteyn Motya Moiseyevna

 

1893

161

Goldshteyn S.M.

 

1893

162

Golf(t)agov Nikolay Vasilyevich

 

1935

163

Golshteyn Ita Isaakovna

 

 

164

Goncharenko Vasiliy Timofeyevich

 

1924

165

Gorberg

 

1896

166

Gorbulevskaya Mariya

 

1922

167

Gordon F.Yu.

 

55 years

168

Gordon F.B.

 

40 years

169

Gordon B.F.

 

17 years

170

Gordon R.F.

 

20 years

171

Gordon Abram Ilich

 

1930

172

Gordon Anna

 

1910

173

Gordon Aron Rafailovich

 

 

174

Gordon Boris Ilich

 

1907

175

Gordon Gennadiy Borisovich

 

 

176

Gordon Grigoriy

 

16 years

177

Gordon Yevgeniy Borisovich

 

6 years

178

Gordon Ilya Semyonovich

 

1882

179

Gordon Lyubov Fayvleyevna

 

15 years

180

Gordon Mark Borisovich

 

1928

181

Gordon Reveka Borisovna (Grig.)

 

1889

182

Gordon Svetlana Borisovna

 

4 years

183

Gordon Faina Markovna

 

 

184

Goren(l)ov

 

 

185

Gotel M.A.

 

1907

186

Grabovskaya Bella Abramovna

 

1932

187

Grabovskaya Ieri Samoylovna

 

1906

188

Grevtsov Yevgeniy Markovich

 

 

189

Grigoryev (I.)N.A.

 

1905

190

Grinfeld Anna Leontyevna

 

 

191

Gurevich

 

1871

 

56 

192

Gutaro(e)v Zakhar Davydovich

 

1925

193

Gutaro(e)v Mikhail Davydovich

 

1924

194

Gutaro(e)va Yevgeniya Mikhaylovna

 

1904

195

Gutaro(e)v Aleksey Davidovich

 

1925

196

Gutman Mariya Borisovna

 

1913

197

Guukherova Rozaliya Abramovna

 

 

198

Gushenskiy Viktor Vladimirovich

 

 

199

Davydov Mikhail Solomonovich

 

1939

200

Davydov Pavel Andreyevich

 

1906

201

Davydov Solomon Mikhaylovich

 

1898

202

Davydova Olga Solomonovna

 

1939

203

Davydova Polina Borisovna

 

1902

204

Davydova Sima

 

 

205

Dmitrov Vladimir Pavlovich

 

1893

206

Dobrinova

 

1898

207

Don Boris Nikolayevich

 

1938

208

Don Ida Nikolayevna

 

1940

209

Don Mariya Iosifovna

 

1902

210

Don Nikolay Yakovlevich

 

1900

211

Don Sofya Nikolayevna

 

1936

212

Druyan Gita Savelyevna

 

1871

213

Druyan Yekaterina Savelyevna

 

1971

214

Druyan Mark Ziskovich

 

1871

215

Druyan Sonya Aronovna

 

1917

216

Druyan Sheyna A.

 

 

217

Dubov Abram Isaakovich

 

1930

218

Dubova Yekaterina Yuryevna

 

1895

219

Dudko Yakov Fyodorovich

 

 

220

Durakov G.Ch.

 

1941

221

Durakova Galya

 

 

222

Yelisevich L.Ye.

 

 

223

Yelisevich R.I.

 

 

224

Yelisevich V.L.

 

 

225

Yelisevich I.L.

 

 

226

Yelisevich N.L.

 

 

227

Yenin

 

 

228

Yeryomenko Fedosiy

 

 

229

Yefimov Mikhail Tikhonovich

 

 

230

Zhadvin

 

 

231

Zheleznyak Filimon Zakharovich

 

 

 

57 

232

Zhma(y)reva K.A.

 

 

233

Zabrodskaya Olga Abramovna

 

1910

234

Zavgorodniy Vasiliy Mikhaylovich

 

 

235

Zagrebelskaya(naya) Rakhil Lvovna

 

1898

236

Zagrebelskiy(nyi) Izrail Lvovich

 

1934

237

Zagrebelskiy(nyi) Lev Solomonovich

 

1897

238

Zadov Isaak Yudovich

 

1880

239

Zazhuyev Tevye

 

1880

240

Zazhuyer Aron Tevyevich

 

1916

241

Zazhuyer Mikhail Tevyevich

 

1914

242

Zaydman Ye.

 

18 years

243

Zaydman S.

 

16 years

244

Zaydman L.

 

13 years

245

Zaytsev Ivan Yeliseyevich

 

 

246

Zaks (Vaks)

 

1920

247

Zaks (Vaks)

 

1933

248

Zaks (Vaks)

 

1937

249

Zaks (Vaks) Ye.Ya.

 

1922

250

Zalesskaya Zinaida

 

12 years

251

Zalesskiy Boris Izrailevich

 

1921

252

Zalesskiy Izrail Borisovich

 

1896

253

Zalivako

 

 

254

Zakharova Antonina Feofelaktovna

 

 

255

Zverev Nikolay Yefimovich

 

1888

256

Zinger Anna Markovna

 

1882

257

Zinger Arkadiy Mikhaylovich

 

1909

258

Zinger Mikhail Isaakovich

 

1882

259

Zinger Roza

 

1910

260

Zinger Sarra Mikhaylovna

 

1919

261

Zinger Serafima Arkadyevna

 

1937

262

Zinger Sofya Mikhaylovna

 

1916

263

Zogot A.L.

 

 

264

Zogot Anna Abramovna

 

 

265

Zogot Grigoriy K.

 

1933

266

Zogot Ye.

 

 

267

Zogot Konstantin Lvovich

 

1910

268

Zogot L.

 

 

269

Zogot M.L.

 

 

270

Zogot Mariya K.

 

1940

271

Zogot Rakhil K.

 

1938

 

58 

272

Zuser Anisim

 

1909

273

Ivzhenko Mikhail Trofimovich

 

 

274

Ilinskiy Yuriy

 

1918

275

Inyutin Miron Prokhorovich

 

 

276

Iofis Mariya Iosifovna

 

 

277

Iofis Mariya Moiseyevna

 

1907

278

Isakovich Avrora

 

 

279

Isakovich Adolf

 

 

280

Isakovich Khaya Yakovlevna

 

 

281

Ishchenko Moisey Vasilyevich

 

1904

282

Ishchenko Nikolay Mikhaylovich

 

1925

283

Kazhdan Ida Semyonovna

 

1926

284

Kazhdan Rakhil Khaimovna

 

1892

285

Kazhdan Semyon Khaimovich

 

1890

286

Kazhdan Tsilya Semyonovna

 

1921

287

Kalashnikov Pyotr A.

 

1918

288

Kaleyko

 

1885

289

Kaleyko David

 

1918

290

Kaleyna

 

1893

291

Kaleyna Furk

 

1885

292

Kamshitskaya Lyubov Pavlovna

 

1935

293

Kamshitskaya Mariya Korneyevna

 

1901

294

Kamshitskiy Nikolay Pavlovich

 

1921

295

Kanelevich

father

 

296

Kanelevich

mother

 

297

Kanelevich Gita

daughter

 

298

Kanelevich

son

 

299

Kanelevich

son

 

300

Kaplun Berta Abramovna

 

1885

301

Kaplun Grigoriy Grigoryevich

 

1905

302

Kaplun D.D.

 

 

303

Korabelko

father

48 years

304

Korabelko

son

20 years

305

Karasik

mother

 

306

Karasik Yeva

 

 

307

Karasik Liza

 

 

308

Karlin S.M.

 

1934

309

Karlina A.M.

 

1938

310

Kartenbaum Artyom Mitrofanovich

 

 

311

Kartenbaum R.L.

 

1937

59 

312

Kasyanenko Nina

 

 

313

Kaufman

 

 

314

Katsura Fanya

 

1907

315

Kizhner Olga Vladimirovna

 

 

316

Kisirskaya Tatyana Isaakovna

 

 

317

Kisirskiy Dmitriy

 

1941

318

Klebanova Mariya Samoylovna

 

1903

319

Klimenko Aleksandra Lukyanovna

 

1918

320

Klimenko Yegor Ivanovich

 

 

321

Klimenko Ivan Ivanovich

 

1900

322

Klimenko Ivan Titovich

 

1888

323

Kobchenko Pyotr Konstantinovich

 

1930

324

Kovalenko

 

1898

325

Kovalenko Mira Abramovna

 

1910

326

Kogan Lyudmila

 

12 years

327

Kogan Mayya

 

3 years

328

Kogan Moisey

 

12 years

329

Kogan Sh.

 

3 years

330

Kozhurskiy

child

 

331

Kozulin Samuil Borisovich

 

1921

332

Kolbasnikov S.

 

 

333

Kondratyev P.M.

 

 

334

Kondratyev Pavel Vasilyevich

 

 

335

Korobeynikov Konstantin Nikolayevich

 

 

336

Korsunskaya

mother

 

337

Korsunskaya Raya

 

 

338

Korsunskiy

father

 

339

Korsunskiy

child

 

340

Korsunskiy

child

 

341

Korchinkov Vasiliy Filatovich

 

 

342

Kosovskaya P.I.

 

1900

343

Kosovskaya D.S.

 

53 years

344

Kosovskiy Ya.I.

 

1897

345

Kosovskiy I.Ya.

 

1920

346

Kosovskiy A.I.

 

55 years

347

Kostin Ivan T.

 

1903

348

Kosminskiy Ivan Stepanovich

 

1892

349

Kochergin Maksim Maksimovich

 

 

350

Kochur Ye.S.

 

 

351

Kravets

 

 

60 

352

Kravtsov Illarion Leontyevich

 

1895

353

Krivitskaya B.I.

 

1910

354

Krivitskaya Ye.Ye.

 

1931

355

Krivitskaya L.Ye.

 

1940

356

Krivitskaya M.Ye.

 

1935

357

Krivitskaya Kh.Ya.

 

1888

358

Krys Iosif Zuyevich

 

1898

359

Krys Filipp Iosifovich

 

1939

360

Krys Ester Abramovna

 

1901

361

Krys Yakov Iosifovich

 

1928

362

Kuzmenko

 

52 years

363

Kurbatov Aleksey Ivanovich

 

1911

364

Kuritskaya Adel Aronovna

 

 

365

Kuritskaya Klara Lazarevna

 

 

366

Kuritskiy Vladimir Aronovich

 

 

367

Kuterova Khasya Moiseyevna

 

 

368

Kutsaya Polina Ilinichna

 

1901

369

Kutsaya Riva Lvovna

 

1928

370

Kutsaya Khaydvoyerek

 

1928

371

Kutsaya Khana Abramovna

 

1904

372

Kutsaya Kheyke Burkhovna

 

 

373

Kutsaya Tsilya

 

1926

374

Kutsiy Dmitriy

 

1937

375

Kutsiy Mischa

 

1937

376

Kutsiy Moysha Mikhaylovich

 

1910

377

Kushnir Mina Ilinichna

 

14 years

378

Kushnir Rita Ilinichna

 

12 years

379

Kushnir Khaya Benulovna

 

1990

380

Layarev Artem Mitrofanovich

 

1898

381

Lednev Grigoriy Pavlovich

 

1914

382

Leybov Abram Mikhaylovich

 

1924

383

Leybov Yan Mikhaylovich

 

1929

384

Leybova Peshe Abramovna

 

1924

385

Leyfri(o)n A.N.

 

1876

386

Leyfri(o)n F.N.

 

1870

387

Leyfrid A.B.

 

1875

388

Leyfrid L.

 

1875

389

Lib(yu)ina Khaya

 

1925

390

Liverntsova Anastasiya Matveyevna

 

1882

391

Litvak Naum Lvovich

 

1907

61 

392

Lifshits Vladimir

 

 

393

Lifshits Ilya Yakovlevich

 

 

394

Lifshits Lina Gavrilovna

 

 

395

Lifshits Lyubov Markovna

 

 

396

Lifshits Mira Samoylovna

 

 

397

Lifshits Naum Yakovlevich

 

 

398

Lifshits Nekhama Samoylovna

 

 

399

Lifshits Emiliya Yakovlevna

 

 

400

Lifshits Yakov Naumovich

 

 

401

Lokshin Grigoriy Vladimirovich

 

 

402

Lokshin Lev Samoylovich

 

 

403

Lokshina Anna Abramovna

 

1903

404

Lomantse(o)v Ilya Demyanovich

 

1919

405

Lyubarskaya Anna Borisovna

 

 

406

Lyubarskaya Revekka Semyonovna

 

 

407

Lyubarskaya Sarra Borisovna

 

 

408

Lyubarskiy Naum Borisovich

 

 

409

Lyubina Lyubov

 

1906

410

Lyubina Mayya

 

1905

411

Lyubina Sarra

 

1929

412

Lyubina Khaya

 

1925

413

Malenkaya Bella

child

 

414

Malenkaya Buzya

child

 

415

Malenkaya Soma

child

 

416

Malenkiy Yankel

schoolchild

 

417

Maslinskiy Ivan Stepanovich

 

 

418

Matekin Savva Grigoryevich

 

 

419

Megrish Yuliy Yakovlevich

 

1941

420

Megrish Yakov Yulyevich

 

1893

421

Mezh(z)govskaya Tatyana

 

1914

422

Melamed Blyuma Isaakovna

 

1901

423

Malamed Vladimir Grigoryevich

 

1899

424

Melamed Ella Vladimirovna

 

1931

425

Melnikov Boris Markovich

 

1915

426

Melnikov Naum Borisovich

 

 

427

Melnikov Pyotr Grigoryevich

 

1894

428

Melnichenko Denis

 

90 years

429

Menrish Ester Isaakovna

 

1902

430

Merkulov Vasiliy

 

 

431

Merkhilevich Vladimir Pavlovich

 

1907

62 

432

Milov Grigoriy Pavlovich

 

1937

433

Milov Yefim Izrailevich

 

1941

434

Milov Izrail Borisovich

 

1912

435

Milov Isay Borisovich

 

1915

436

Milov Pavel Borisovich

 

1911

437

Milov Semyon Pavlovich

 

1939

438

Milova Anna Avraamovna

 

1911

439

Milova Klara

 

1913

440

Milova Larisa Izrailevna

 

1939

441

Milova Raisa Yakovlevna

 

1914

442

Milchenko Andrey Matveyevich

 

 

443

Morskaya Khaya

 

1896

444

Myaskovskaya Ada Konstantinovna

 

1935

445

Myaskovskaya Sofiya Isaakovna

 

1916

446

Myaskovskiy Yuriy Konstantinovich

 

1937

447

Nemaya Inda Lipovna

 

1903

448

Nemaya Roza Leontyevna

 

1927

449

Nikishina Lyudmila (Polozhentsev)

 

38 years

450

Nikolskiy Nikolay Andreyevich

 

 

451

Nosachyov Aleksey Alekseyevich

 

 

452

Oberemok

 

 

453

Olenchuk Timofey R.

 

 

454

Omelchenko Aleksandr Ivanovich

 

 

455

Orel Anna Borisovna

 

 

456

Orel Margarita Borisovna

 

 

457

Orel Sarra Borisovna

 

 

458

Orekhov

7/8 mine bomber

 

459

Orekhova Mariya Vasilyevna

 

 

460

Osipenko Leonid

 

 

461

Ostrovskaya Dina Iosifovna

 

 

462

Ostrovskaya Olga Iosifovna

 

1935

463

Ostrovskaya Ester Aronovna

 

1902

464

Ostrovskiy Grigoriy Iosifovich

 

1920

465

Ostrovskiy Mikhail

 

1926

466

Osherov Iosif Leybovich

 

1896

467

Osherova Nekhama Naumovna

 

1896

468

Osherova Nina Iosifovna

 

1939

469

Osherova Sofya Iosifovna

 

1937

470

Panakin Venedikt Fyodorovich

 

 

63 

471

Pakhanyan Artur

 

 

472

Pevzner Sofya Mikhaylovna

 

1905

473

Pereverzev Anatoliy Petrovich

 

 

474

Pereverzev Ivan Yemelyanovich

 

 

475

Perchikov Boris Aronovich

 

 

476

Petrov Anatoliy Nikitovich

 

1927

477

Petrov Ivan Petrovich

 

 

478

Pinin Nikolay Fedotovich

 

1918

479

Pisarev Mikhail Sergeyevich

 

 

480

Pogorelova A.D.(I.)

 

1906

481

Pogrebnyak Iosif Silovich

 

1885

482

Podmanskiy Viktor Vladimirovich

 

1926

483

Podshivalov Valentin Nikolayevich

underground group leader

 

484

Poyker B.

 

1908

485

Poyker Izrail Iosifovich

 

1936

486

Poyker Ilya Iosifovich

 

1936

487

Poyker Lev Iosifovich

 

1924

488

Poyker Mariya Iosifovna

 

1932

489

Poyker Faina Iosifovna

 

1930

490

Ponomarenko Nikolay

 

 

491

Poryadochnaya Mara

mother

 

492

Poryadochnaya Raya

child

 

493

Poryadochnyi

father

 

494

Pototskiy Leonid

 

 

495

Prokudin Mikhail Vasilyevich

 

 

496

Pronina Sarra

 

1908

497

Prokhorova Anna Solomonovna

 

1907

498

Prussak (Trussak) A.L.

 

 

499

Radov Anatoliy

 

 

500

Rakitov Grigoriy Ivanovich

 

 

501

Rakitov Pyotr Alekseyevich

 

 

502

Rasskazov Fyodor Mikhaylovich

 

 

503

Revzin Izrail Moiseyevich

 

1877

504

Revzin Moisey Izr.

 

 

505

Revzina Anna Yuzovna

 

1887

506

Revzina Bronya Yudovna

 

 

507

Royburg (Reyburt) Yelizaveta Borisovna

 

1934

508

Royburg (Reyburt) Sofya Borisovna

 

1908

509

Royburd (Reyburt) David Abramov.

 

1859

64 

510

Royburd (Reyburt) Yeva Lvovna

 

1900

511

Royburd (Reyburt) Meer Abramovich

 

1896

512

Royburd (Reyburt) Mira Mikh.

 

1861

513

Royzman Mikhail Vasilyevich

 

 

514

Royzman Mits.L.

 

1902

515

Roytburg (Reyburt) Leon Borisovich

 

1936

516

Romanitskaya Sofya Isayevna

 

 

517

Romanov Viktor Nikolayevich

 

1941

518

Romanova Anna Aronovna

 

1915

519

Rostovskiy Vasiliy

 

 

520

Rudenko Fyodor

 

 

521

Rudnitskaya Yelizaveta Mikhaylovna

 

 

522

Rutman Lina Aronovna

 

1935

523

Rutman Polina Grigoryevna

 

1905

524

Rutman Faina Aronovna

 

1938

525

Ryabushenko N.(P.)F.

 

1896

526

Ryabchenko Nikolay Maksimovich

 

 

527

Sabeshchak Vasiliy

 

 

528

Savkiye Boris Petrovich

 

1924

529

Savkin Pyotr Borisovich

 

1884

530

Salkov A.(M.)S.

 

1887

531

Sandomirskiy M.Ya.

 

1917

532

Sanzhare(o)vskiy Nikolay Fyodorovich

 

 

533

Satan(r)ov Nurshemevyan

 

 

534

Svidler Kolya

 

 

535

Svidler Lyusya

 

 

536

Svidler Mariya Sholomovna

 

 

537

Svidler Khana (Anna) Moiseyevna

 

 

538

Svidler Sholom Yankelevich

 

 

539

Semyonov Georgiy Andreyevich

 

1906

540

Semyonov Ivan Lavrentyevich

 

 

541

Semyonov Sim.

 

 

542

Semenchuk Ilya Semyonovich

 

 

543

Sigal Abram Iosifovich

 

1875

544

Sigal Abram Moiseyevich

 

1875

545

Sigal Anna Borisovna

 

1878

546

Sigal Isaak Moiseyevich

 

1890

547

Sigal Naum Abramovich

 

1915

548

Sigal Nekhama Markovna

 

1896

549

Sigal-Kran

child

 

65 

550

Sigal-Kran Polya Abramovna

 

1918

551

Simonenko Vasiliy Nikolayevich

 

 

552

Simkhe M.A.

 

1888

553

Sinelnikov Abr. Shayevich

 

 

554

Sinelnikov David Abramovich

 

 

555

Sinelnikov Ruvim Abr.

 

 

556

Sinelnikov Nikolay Fyodorovich

 

 

557

Sinelnikova Khana Izr.

 

 

558

Sinyutin(tkin) Vasiliy Danilovich

 

 

559

Sirota

 

1920

560

Sirotin Yuriy Grigoryevich

 

1925

561

Sirotina(tkina) Darya Borisovna

 

1905

562

Sirotina(tkina) Rita Grigoryevna

 

1924

563

Skayzer Rimma Moiseyevna

 

1896

564

Skayzer Faina Isaakovna

 

1914

565

Skiba Ivan Dementyevich

 

 

566

Skuratov Ilya Iosifovich

 

 

567

Slabovik Mariya Davydovna

 

1907

568

Slabovik Yankel Leybovich

 

1882

569

Slavutskaya Zhanna Iosifovna

 

6 years

570

Slavutskaya Frume Bentsionovna

 

 

571

Slavutskaya Tsilya Iosifovna

 

20 years

572

Slavutskiy Iosif A.

 

 

573

Slavutskiy Semyon Iosifovich

 

 

574

Sladkov Aron Iosifovich

 

 

575

Sladkov Iosif Yerukhimovich

 

1901

576

Sladkov Pyotr Iosifovich

 

12 years

577

Sladkova Nina Aronovna

 

1903

578

Slobodyanik (Slobodenyuk) Arkadiy

 

 

579

Slyusarevskaya Yelena Abramovna

 

10 years

580

Slyusarevskaya Mayya Bend.

 

1906

581

Slyusarevskaya Rita Abramovna

 

13 years

582

Solok Gersil Isaakovich

 

 

583

Solok Isaak Moiseyevich

 

 

584

Solok Nesya Isaakovna

 

 

585

Solok Sarra

 

 

586

Solok Fanya Isaakovna

 

 

587

Solok Khaya Isaakovna

 

 

588

Sor(o)kin Vasiliy Vasilyevich

 

1906

589

Sor(o)kin Khanak Abramovich

 

1883

66 

590

Sor(o)kin(a) Aleksandra Khananovna

 

1921

591

Sor(o)kina Bronya Iosifovna

 

1892

592

Starchenko

 

 

593

Stausovshskiy Nikolay Fyodorovich

 

 

594

Stegaylova (Strigaylova) Anna Borisovna

 

1914(18)

595

Stepan(k)ovskaya Bronya Davydovna

 

 

596

Strizhak Fyodor Semyonovich

 

 

597

Strionov Timofey Grigoryevich (Georgiyevich)

 

1903

598

Subbotin Mikhail Aleksandrovich

 

1924

599

Subbotin Fyodor Aleksandrovich

 

1912

600

Sugan Mark Karpovich

 

1906

601

Sulitin Yevgeniy Ivanovich

 

 

602

Suntup N.I.

 

1896

603

Suntup R.Ya.

 

1898

604

Suntup A.N.

 

1903

(1930)

605

Sunkov K.

 

1925

606

Surinovich Ts.S.

 

50 years

607

Surinovich S.I.

 

20 years

608

Sukhonin

 

 

609

Tamkin Mark Yeliseyevich

 

1870

610

Tamkina Rakhil Davydovna

 

 

611

Tarnapolskaya Olga Abramovna

 

1882

612

Tarnapolskiy Iosif Ilich

 

1876(86)

613

Takhtarova Aleksandra Klimentyevna

 

 

614

Tverye Serafima Samoylovna

Khartsyzsk

 

615

Telyankin Leonid Alekseyevich

 

 

616

Teslya Ilya Gerasimovich

 

 

617

Tkachenko Yevgeniy Mikhaylovich

 

1913

618

Tkachenko Yakov Gordeyevich

 

1929

619

Totel I.A.

 

 

620

Totin Abram Isaakovich

 

1876

621

Tretyakov Vasiliy Ignatyevich

 

 

622

Ulman Ya.E.

 

1915

623

Umanskaya Faya Davydovna

 

1875

624

Ustenko

 

 

625

Fazanova Anna Grigoryevna

 

1924

626

Fyodorov Konstantin Konstantinovich

 

1930

627

Fedoseyev A.M.

 

 

 67 

628

Finizhnik Fyodor Nik.

 

 

629

Fishtel Ilya Iosifovich

 

1930

630

Fishtel Iosif Leybovich

 

1893

631

Fishtel Raisa Iosifovna

 

1922

632

Fomenko Semyon Iosifovich

 

1923

633

Freylikh Yeva Abramovna

 

1911

634

Khadin(l)ovich Ivan Yefimovich

 

 

635

Khazanovich Grigoriy Yefimovich

 

1930

636

Khazanovich Khiyena Abramovna

 

1895

637

Khazanovich Yakov Yefimovich

 

1924

638

Khait

child

 

639

Khait

child

 

640

Khait

grandmother

 

641

Khait

child

 

642

Khait Mark Abramovich

 

1895

643

Khait Sima Markovna

 

1930

644

Khait Tamara Markovna

 

1938

645

Khakisya N.F.

 

 

646

Khalabov Yakov Borisovich

 

58 years

647

Kharlamov Vasiliy Mikhaylovich

 

1893

648

Khat Sarra Yefimovna

 

1904

649

Khersonskaya Yevdokiya Anisimovna

 

 

650

Khersonskaya Riva Mikhaylovna

 

1870

651

Khersonskaya Yuliya Anisimovna

 

 

652

Khodos Anna Semyonovna

 

1894

653

Khodos Garri Lvovich

 

1933

654

Khodos Grigoriy Samoylovich

 

1886

655

Khodos Lev

 

1895

656

Khodos Khaya Leybovna

 

1904

657

Kholodivker Brukhta Moiseyevna

 

1887

658

Kholodivker Yevgeniya Konstantinovna

 

1924

659

Kholodivker Ida Konstantinovna

 

1911

660

Kholodivker K. Barukhovich

 

1883

661

Khurin Mayor Semyonovich

 

1882

662

Khurina Zinaida Ruvimovna

 

1901

663

Khurina Polina Meyerovna

 

1942

664

Khurina Rozaliya Meyerovna

 

1930

665

Khurina Serafima Meyerovna

 

1936

666

Tselik Pyort Zakharovich

 

1904

667

Tsukhkan

 

1886

68 

668

Tsyganov P.Ya.

 

1923

669

Chantin Lidiya

 

 

670

Chantin M.Yak.

 

1925

671

Chernikov Mikhail Kiril. (Ivanovich)

 

1887

672

Chernov L.K.

 

1912

673

Chernyak G.I.

 

1892

674

Chernyak M.I.

 

1901

675

Chernyak Raisa Grigoryevna

 

1934

676

Chernyak Rozaliya Yakovlevna

 

1922

677

Chernyak Sofya Aleksandrovna

 

 

678

Chernyak Faina

 

1934

679

Chizhikova Khaya Leontyevna

 

1929

680

Chizhikova Khaya Yakovlevna

 

1897

681

Chizhov Vladimir Vasilyevich

 

 

682

Chizhov Khanan Leontyevich

 

 

683

Chinkov Boris Alekseyevich

 

 

684

Chulkov Semyon Vlasovich

 

1893

685

Shargorodskiy Dmitriy Stepanovich

 

1888

686

Sharpik I.I.

 

 

687

Sharpilo G.L.(M.)

 

1910

688

Shevakhovich M.Ya.

 

 

689

Shevakhovich

mother

 

690

Shevakhovich

father

 

691

Shchedrov I.A.

 

 

692

Shchedrov L.I.

 

 

693

Shchedrov B.I.

 

 

694

Shchedrova Ye.I.

 

 

695

Shchedrova S.G.

 

 

696

Sheynkman A.I.

 

1886

697

Sheynkman G.A.

 

1912

698

Sheynkman S.B.

 

1886

699

Sheynkman F.A.

 

1915

700

Shetser Samuil Moiseyevich

 

1872

701

Shinelev Boris Dmitriyevich

 

1907

702

Shikhanovich I.B.

 

 

703

Shikhanovich I.I.

 

 

704

Shikhanovich R.M.

 

 

705

Shikhin I.I.

 

 

706

Shishakov S.F.

 

1908

707

Shiyan V.M.

 

1898

69 

708

Shiyan G.M.

 

 

709

Shmerkin A.G.

 

1898

710

Shmerkina E.I.

 

1900

711

Shneyder Abram Solomonovich

 

 

712

Shneyder Sima Moiseyevna

 

 

713

Shpolyanovskiy M.N.

 

 

714

Shriftch(g)iser L.Ya.

 

1888

715

Shrugin A.I.

 

1912

716

Shuvalov Ivan Mikhaylovich

 

1913

717

Shulyakov Ivan Mikhaylovich

 

 

718

Shchukin-Moskovskiy G.

 

 

719

Estrin A.S.

 

1874

720

Estrina L.G.

 

1940

721

Estrina L.M.

 

1936

722

Estrina O.I.

 

1910

723

Estrina L.M.

 

1940

724

Etina Rivva Zyamovna

 

1938(35)

725

Etina Ye.B.

 

1910

726

Etina B.Z.

 

1928

727

Yudolovskaya Lidiya Mikhaylovna

 

 

728

Yudolovskaya Sheyndel Abramovna

 

 

729

Yudolovskiy Mikhail Ilich

 

 

730

Yakimchuk

 

 

731

Yanovskaya Khaya

 

1896

70

tears_of_the_holocaust_005